Using Hallucinogens to Treat Alcohol Addiction
Pamela Easter
Advanced Social Work Research MSW 514
Dr. Lindy Lewis
September 12, 2021
Article I Clinical interpretations patient experience in a trial of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for alcohol use disorder
Article II The effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on hepatic tests in patients who chronically abuse alcohol – a randomized study
Article III Cessation and reduction alcohol consumption and misuse after psychedelic use
Articla IV The psychedelic debriefing in Alcohol Dependence Treatment: Illustrating key change phenomena through qualitative content analysis of clinical sessions
Alcohol Addiction
Alcohol addiction is a common health problem in the United States. According to statics, one in every thirteen Americans abuse alcohol or suffer from alcohol addiction. The number translates to 14 million Americans. The statistics shows that alcohol is a major crisis in the US, Social workers will need to address. The comparative Analysis will look at different studies that discuss the use of hallucinogenic interventions. Hallucinogens are psychoactive agents that cause body changes. Examples of hallucinogens are Psychedelics that trigger unique states of consciousness. Another group of hallucinogens is Psilocybin.
The first article that discusses hallucinogenic intervention is by (Bogenschutz et al., 2018). The authors discuss the hallucinogen Psilocybin and how it aids in cutting alcoholism rates. According to studies analyzed in the literature review, the hallucinogen improved mood stability among the users. Also, according to earlier studies, the Psilocybin hallucinogen aided smokers to cease smoking habits (Bogenschutz et al., 2018). Therefore, research shows how Psilocybin would reduce alcohol dependence. ( Nielson, E. M., 2018),
The study design used by the authors to conduct the study was single-group, within-subjects. The intervention was carry out within 12 weeks, and 14 sessions were organized in total. The researchers organized two open-label Psilocybin intervention sessions where Psilocybin was administered to participants at the interval of four weeks. The participants were recruited into the analysis through advertisements. They consisted of both males and females aged between 25-65 years with an active history of alcohol dependence. After screening for alcohol dependence, 10 participants were selected, four women and six men. After 12 weeks, the results showed that participants using Psilocybin had improved tremendously. The conclusion (Bogenschutz et al., 2018) is that Psilocybin may have lasting benefits in alcohol use disorder when the victims are thoroughly screened for alcohol dependence.
Articls I,III, IV in comparison studied the impacts of psychedelic drugs Psilocybin, LSD on alcohol use disorder. The study was conducted by (Nielson, E. M 2018). The patients participating in the study were selected using the randomized trial. The research aimed to investigate the efficacy of Psilocybin in treating alcohol use disorders. The authors used a double-blind therapeutic model, which is similar to the open-label pilot use by Bogenshutz et al. (2018) to study the impacts of Psilocybin on alcohol addiction. During the double-blind psychosocial treatment, the intervention period is twelve weeks, and administration sessions were conducted in the fourth and eighth week, In comparison Article I,III,IV during the first psychosocial treatment, the authors administered Psilocybin 25mg/70kg vs. diphenhydramine 50mg given orally. In the second session of medication treatment, Psilocybin was administered 30mg/70kg or 40mg/ 70kg vs. diphenhydramine at 100 mg or 50 mg. or high dose of LSD (38%) or psilocybin (36%),depending on the first session medication outcomes. To determine the impacts of the medication, alcohol drinking outcomes were measured. The data on mediating effects such as anxiety, motivation, self-efficacy, and spiritual dimensions were measured at multiple time points until 50 weeks after the first administration of Psilocybin 25mg/70kg vs. diphenhydramine 50 mg vs. LSD (38%) or psilocybin (36%) orally. After the medication treatment sessions, the research participants reported some changes in how they viewed themselves, the quality of their baseline consciousness, and their new relationship with alcohol and drinking. The use of psilocybin medication also increases individual control of the decision made, self-efficacy, compassion, and forgiveness. The authors’ findings are similar to those by (Bogenshutz et al., 2018) on the role of psilocybin medication. By comparison Articles I,III,IV in this study, the victims showed improved progress after using psychedelic drugs psilocybin, LSD,diphenhydramine medication.
Article I, IV, compares differently. First, Article I (Bogenshutz et al.2018), used the open-label psilocybin interventions, while ( Nielson, E. M., 2018), used the double-blind therapeutic model interventions. The intervention period for each study was 12 weeks, and open-label and double-blind sessions were administered at the 4th and 8th weeks in both studies. while Article IV ( Nielson, E. M., 2018), used randomized trials. The findings of both interventions were that Psilocybin improves the conditions of alcohol addicts.
Articles I,II,III,IV in comparison conducted studies on individuals with (AUD) Alcohol use Disorder. The participants were Adults male and female ages 25-65 yr. old. participants were whites males were 78%, while 60% black and hispanic. In Comparison Articles I, II, III, IV, participants must qualify and meet the AUD criteria, 72% managed. Many participants reported using moderate to high doses of LSD and Psilocybin at 38% and 36%, respectively. After dosing intervention, the majority of the research participants failed to meet the criteria for AUD and reported their psychedelic experience as meaningful and insightful. Further, the data showed that reduction in alcohol consumption was related to using high doses of LSD or Psilocybin. 28% reported the decline in alcoholic use was due to changing life priorities. Articles I, III asserted that the results showed a link between the uses of psychedelics in non-clinical settings and alcohol cessation. Like the studies conducted by Article I,III the study showed that hallucinogens helped stop alcohol addiction. Article II, the intervention had no psychedelic drugs like LSD, Psilocybins like the other 3 Articles. Articles I,III,IV. In this study, the participants were selected if they had alcohol use disorder. In contrast, concluded that alcohol addicts may use Psilocybin and LSD to reduce alcohol consumption and improve their quality of life.
Articles I, II research was conducted with ten participants. Before participating in the study, the research subjects provided written concepts for participating in the pilot study. Participants were removed from the study if they had exclusionary mental problems. The treatment included 14 sessions within three months. Out of the 14 treatment sessions, two were psilocybin medications administered on weeks 4 and 8 during the intervention. Twelve sessions were non-drug psychotherapy, and sessions two of them which were used for debriefing. 0.3mg per kilogram psilocybin was administered orally during the first session. In comparison, 0.4mg per kilogram was administered for the second session except where members participants did not want increased Psilocybin or reported side effects. Each participant attended a debriefing session with therapists after every psilocybin treatment session. The sessions were primarily used to evaluate the patients’ conditions, including the thought process, patient mood, physical health, and drinking outcomes. After the study period, a change was observed in patients’ own words, thereby reinforcing the idea that Psilocybin alters the users’ thought process and helps them remain in control of their environment. The findings echoed those by (Bogenshutz et al., 2018; (Nielson, E. M., 2018,) Garcia-Romeu et al., 2019). Therefore, Psilocybin may be used to reduce alcohol addiction among alcohol users.
Bogenschutz, M. P., Podrebarac, S. K., Duane, J. H., Amegadzie, S. S., Malone, T. C., Owens, L. T., Ross, S., & Mennenga, S. E. (2018). Clinical interpretations patient experience in a trial of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00100
Dart, R. C., Green, J. L., Kuffner, E. K., Heard, K., Sproule, B., & Brands, B. (2010). The effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on hepatic tests in patients who chronically abuse alcohol – a randomized study. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 32(3), 478–486. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04364.x
Garcia-Romeu, A., Davis, A. K., Erowid, F., Erowid, E., Griffiths, R. R., & Johnson, M. W. (2019). Cessation and reduction alcohol consumption and misuse after psychedelic use. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(9), 1088–1101. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119845793
Nielson, E. M., May, D. G., Forcehimes, A. A., & Bogenschutz, M. P. (2018). The psychedelic debriefing in Alcohol Dependence Treatment: Illustrating key change phenomena through qualitative content analysis of clinical sessions. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00132

Module 4: Considerations on Recruitment and Sampling of Subjects & Measures
This assignment focuses on the sampling and recruitment of subjects for the studies that you are critiquing in addition to the measures used.
Course Objectives
· CO 1: Think critically about the use of hypothesis testing in the behavioral sciences.
· CO 2: Choose an appropriate statistical test for specific forms of data and hypotheses.
· CO 3: Implement logic and mathematical basis for different inferential statistics.
· CO 4: Use computers and the software package SPSS as a tool for data management and hypothesis testing.
Requirements and Guidelines
1. Review the Course Outcomes for this assignment, which are listed above.
2. Using the previously selected four articles in analysis assignment Part 1 in Module 2, write a comparative analysis paper that address key areas listed below.
3. You can use the questions under each criteria to complete the assignment. Review the Grading Criteria below for details on point distribution.
4. Please use APA format for both in-text citation and references.
Grading Criteria
Your assignment will be graded based on following criteria:



Sampling Design/Recruitment (50 points)

· Is the sample clearly identified?
· Is it clear how the sample was obtained?
· Is the rationale for the sample size provided?
· Are inclusion and exclusion criteria clearly identified?
· Are screening procedures identified?

Target Population (Sample) (50 points)

· Is the relationship between the sample and the target population clearly delineated?

Measures (40 points)

· Is it clear which instruments measure which concepts?
· Is the rationale for the measurement selection acceptable?
· Is the reliability for each measure provided
· Is the validity for each measure provided?

Clarity of Writing and APA Style (10 points)

· The paper should be 3 – 4 pages in length.
· Communicate ideas clearly with proper grammar and spelling. Follow APA rules of formatting.
Considerations on Recruitment and Sampling of Subjects & Measures

Considerations on Recruitment and Sampling of Subjects & Measures




This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Sampling Design/Recruitment

50 pts
Highest Level of performance
Sampling design or recruitment procedure is fully described. This includes any use of inclusion or exclusion criteria.

46 pts
Very Good or High Level of Performance
Sampling design or recruitment procedure is partially described.

42 pts
Acceptable Level of Performance
Sampling design or recruitment procedures is not identified but implied.

38 pts
Failing Level of Performance
Sampling design or recruitment procedure is not identified.

50 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Target Population (Sample)

50 pts
Highest Level of performance
Characteristics for treatment population, including treatment drop-outs included.

46 pts
Very Good or High Level of Performance
Characteristics for treatment population is included.

42 pts
Acceptable Level of Performance
Some characteristics of treatment population are identified.

38 pts
Failing Level of Performance
Key characteristics of the treatment population are not identified.

50 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Measures

40 pts
Highest Level of performance
Operational definitions are provided for variables in addition to indications for measurement validity and reliability are provided for standardized measures.

33 pts
Very Good or High Level of Performance
Operational definition for all variables are provided.

31 pts
Acceptable Level of Performance
Operational definitions for some variables is provided.

30 pts
Failing Level of Performance
Measures for variables are not described.

40 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Clarity of Writing and APA Style

10 pts
Full Marks
Excellent use of standard English showing original thought. APA format correct with no more than 1-2 minor errors.

9 pts
Very Good or High Level of Performance
Good evidence of own expression and competent use of language. 3-5 errors in APA format and/or 1-2 citations are missing.

8 pts
Acceptable Level of Performance
Some evidence of own expression and competent use of language. APA formatting contains multiple errors and/or several citations are missing.

7 pts
Failing Level of Performance
Language needs significant development. Numerous spelling and/or grammar errors. APA formatting not present and citations are not included.

10 pts

Total Points: 150

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