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The Art of
Public Speaking
Stephen E. Lucas
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Paul Stob
Vanderbilt University
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Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright ©2020 by Stephen E.
Lucas. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015, 2012, 2009,
2007, 2004, 2001, 1998, 1995, 1992, 1989, 1986, 1983. No part of this publication may be reproduced or
distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written
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Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
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ISBN 978-1-259-92460-6 (bound edition)
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ISBN 978-1-260-41293-2 (loose-leaf edition)
MHID 1-260-41293-8 (loose-leaf edition)
ISBN 978-1-260-41287-1 (annotated instructor’s edition)
MHID 1-260-41287-3 (annotated instructor’s edition)
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Lucas, Stephen, 1946– author. | Stob, Paul, author.
Title: The art of public speaking / Stephen E. Lucas with Paul Stob.
Description: Thirteenth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019]
Identifiers: LCCN 2018038517| ISBN 9781259924606 (bound edition : alk. paper) |
 ISBN 1259924602 (bound edition : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781260412932 (loose-leaf edition) |
 ISBN 1260412938 (loose-leaf edition)
Subjects: LCSH: Public speaking.
Classification: LCC PN4129.15 .L83 2019 | DDC 808.5/1—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018038517
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website
does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does
not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
luc24602_fm_i-xxiv_1.indd 2 10/18/18 11:51 AM
Stephen E. Lucas is Professor of Communication Arts and Evjue-Bascom Professor in the Humanities at the Univer-sity of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his bachelor’s
degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his
master’s and doctorate degrees from Penn State University.
Professor Lucas has been recognized for his work as both a
scholar and a teacher. His first book, Portents of Rebellion: Rhetoric
and Revolution in Philadelphia, 1765–1776, received the Golden
Anniversary Award of the National Communication Association
and was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. His major articles include
“The Schism in Rhetorical Scholarship,” “The Renaissance of
American Public Address: Text and Context in Rhetorical Criti-
cism,” “The Stylistic Artistry of the Declaration of Independence,”
and “The Rhetorical Ancestry of the Declaration of Indepen-
dence,” for which he received the Golden Anniversary Monograph
Award of the National Communication Association. His most
recent book is Words of a Century: The Top 100 American Speeches,
Professor Lucas has received a number of teaching awards,
including the Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching at the University of
Wisconsin and the National Communication Association’s Donald Ecroyd Award
for Outstanding Teaching in Higher Education. He is featured in the Educational
Video Group’s program on the history of American public address, and he
appeared on the History Channel’s documentary on the Declaration of
Professor Lucas has directed the introductory public speaking course at the
University of Wisconsin–Madison since 1973. Over the years he has been respon-
sible for numerous teaching innovations and has supervised the training of hun-
dreds of graduate assistants. He has also served as a judge for the major national
English-language public speaking competitions in China, has lectured at numer-
ous Chinese universities, has conducted workshops for Chinese instructors on
teaching public speaking, and has been instrumental in the development of public
speaking as a dedicated course in the English curriculum of Chinese universities.
The Art of Public Speaking has been translated into several languages, including
Chinese, Portuguese, Korean, Romanian, and Japanese.
Stephen Lucas and his wife, Patty, live in Madison, Wisconsin, and have two
sons, Jeff and Ryan. His interests include travel, sports, art, and photography.
About the Author
Courtesy of Stephen Lucas
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Brief Contents
1 Speaking in Public 2
2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26
3 Listening 44
4 Giving Your First Speech 60
5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74
6 Analyzing the Audience 94
7 Gathering Materials 114
8 Supporting Your Ideas 134
9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158
10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176
11 Outlining the Speech 196
12 Using Language 212
13 Delivery 230
14 Using Visual Aids 250
15 Speaking to Inform 268
16 Speaking to Persuade 290
17 Methods of Persuasion 316
18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344
19 Presenting Your Speech Online 356
20 Speaking in Small Groups 372
APPENDIX Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1
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A Note from the Author xvi
Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition xvii
McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor Resources xviii
Acknowledgments xxii
Reviewers, Contributors, and Symposia Participants xxiii
Chapter 1 Speaking in Public 2
The Power of Public Speaking 4
The Tradition of Public Speaking 5
Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation 6
Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation 8
Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class 8
Nervousness Is Normal 9
Dealing with Nervousness 10
Public Speaking and Critical Thinking 16
The Speech Communication Process 17
Speaker 17
Message 18
Channel 18
Listener 18
Feedback 19
Interference 20
Situation 20
The Speech Communication Process: Example with
Commentary 21
Public Speaking in a Multicultural World 21
Cultural Diversity in the Modern World 21
Cultural Diversity and Public Speaking 22
Avoiding Ethnocentrism 23
Chapter 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26
The Importance of Ethics 28
Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 29
Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound 29
Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech 30
Be Honest in What You Say 31
Courtesy of Josh Shipp
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vi Contents
Chapter 4 Giving Your First Speech 60
Preparing Your Speech 60
Developing the Speech 60
Organizing the Speech 63
Delivering Your Speech 65
Speaking Extemporaneously 66
Rehearsing the Speech 66
Presenting the Speech 67
Sample Speeches with Commentary 68
Chapter 3 Listening 44
Listening Is Important 46
Listening and Critical Thinking 47
Four Causes of Poor Listening 48
Not Concentrating 48
Listening Too Hard 48
Jumping to Conclusions 49
Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance 50
How to Become a Better Listener 51
Take Listening Seriously 51
Be an Active Listener 51
Resist Distractions 51
Don’t Be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery 53
Suspend Judgment 54
Focus Your Listening 54
Develop Note-Taking Skills 56
Avoid Name-Calling and Other Forms of Abusive Language 32
Put Ethical Principles into Practice 33
Plagiarism 34
Global Plagiarism 35
Patchwork Plagiarism 35
Incremental Plagiarism 36
Plagiarism and the Internet 38
Guidelines for Ethical Listening 39
Be Courteous and Attentive 39
Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 40
Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas 40
©sturti/Getty Images
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Contents vii
Chapter 6 Analyzing the Audience 94
Audience-Centeredness 96
Your Classmates as an Audience 96
The Psychology of Audiences 97
Demographic Audience Analysis 98
Age 99
Religion 100
Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background 100
Gender and Sexual Orientation 101
Group Membership 102
Situational Audience Analysis 102
Size 103
Physical Setting 103
Disposition Toward the Topic 103
Disposition Toward the Speaker 105
Disposition Toward the Occasion 106
Getting Information About the Audience 107
Adapting to the Audience 109
Audience Adaptation Before the Speech 110
Audience Adaptation During the Speech 110
Chapter 5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74
Choosing a Topic 76
Topics You Know a Lot About 76
Topics You Want to Know More About 77
Brainstorming for Topics 78
Determining the General Purpose 79
Determining the Specific Purpose 80
Tips for Formulating the Specific Purpose Statement 82
Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose 84
Phrasing the Central Idea 86
What Is the Central Idea? 86
Guidelines for the Central Idea 88
©Handout/Getty Images
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viii Contents
Chapter 8 Supporting Your Ideas 134
Examples 136
Brief Examples 137
Extended Examples 137
Hypothetical Examples 138
Tips for Using Examples 138
Statistics 141
Understanding Statistics 142
Tips for Using Statistics 145
Testimony 148
Expert Testimony 149
Peer Testimony 149
Quoting Versus Paraphrasing 150
Tips for Using Testimony 150
Citing Sources Orally 153
Chapter 7 Gathering Materials 114
Using Your Own Knowledge and Experience 114
Doing Library Research 116
Librarians 116
The Catalogue 117
Reference Works 117
Newspaper and Periodical Databases 118
Academic Databases 119
Searching the Internet 120
Search Engines 120
Specialized Research Resources 120
Evaluating Internet Documents 122
Interviewing 125
Before the Interview 125
During the Interview 126
After the Interview 128
Tips for Doing Research 128
Start Early 128
Make a Preliminary Bibliography 128
Take Notes Efficiently 129
Think About Your Materials as You Research 131
©Cooper Neill/Getty Images
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Contents ix
Chapter 9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158
Organization Is Important 158
Main Points 160
Number of Main Points 162
Strategic Order of Main Points 162
Tips for Preparing Main Points 167
Supporting Materials 168
Connectives 170
Transitions 171
Internal Previews 171
Internal Summaries 172
Signposts 172
Chapter 11 Outlining the Speech 196
The Preparation Outline 196
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline 198
Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary 202
The Speaking Outline 205
Guidelines for the Speaking Outline 206
Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary 208
Chapter 10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176
The Introduction 178
Get Attention and Interest 178
Reveal the Topic 183
Establish Credibility and Goodwill 184
Preview the Body of the Speech 185
Sample Introduction with Commentary 186
Tips for the Introduction 187
The Conclusion 188
Signal the End of the Speech 188
Reinforce the Central Idea 190
Sample Conclusion with Commentary 193
Tips for the Conclusion 193
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Chapter 13 Delivery 230
What Is Good Delivery? 232
Methods of Delivery 232
Reading from a Manuscript 232
Reciting from Memory 233
Speaking Impromptu 233
Speaking Extemporaneously 234
The Speaker’s Voice 235
Volume 235
Pitch 236
Rate 236
Pauses 236
Vocal Variety 237
Pronunciation 237
Articulation 238
Dialect 239
The Speaker’s Body 239
Personal Appearance 240
Movement 240
Gestures 241
Eye Contact 242
Practicing Delivery 242
Answering Audience Questions 244
Preparing for the Question-and-Answer Session 244
Managing the Question-and-Answer Session 245
Chapter 12 Using Language 212
Meanings of Words 212
Using Language Accurately 214
Using Language Clearly 216
Use Familiar Words 216
Choose Concrete Words 217
Eliminate Clutter 218
Using Language Vividly 219
Imagery 219
Rhythm 222
Using Language Appropriately 224
Appropriateness to the Occasion 225
Appropriateness to the Audience 225
Appropriateness to the Topic 226
Appropriateness to the Speaker 226
A Note on Inclusive Language 226
©fstop123/Getty Images
x Contents
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Chapter 14 Using Visual Aids 250
Kinds of Visual Aids 252
Objects and Models 252
Photographs and Drawings 252
Graphs 253
Charts 255
Video 255
The Speaker 256
Presentation Technology 256
Pluses and Minuses of Presentation Technology 257
Planning to Use Presentation Technology 258
Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids 259
Prepare Visual Aids Well in Advance 259
Keep Visual Aids Simple 259
Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough 259
Use a Limited Amount of Text 259
Use Fonts Effectively 260
Use Color Effectively 260
Use Images Strategically 261
Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids 262
Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them 262
Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience 262
Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them 263
Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely 263
Talk to Your Audience, Not to Your Visual Aid 264
Practice with Your Visual Aids 264
Check the Room and Equipment 265
Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 268
Types of Informative Speeches: Analysis and Organization 270
Speeches About Objects 270
Speeches About Processes 272
Speeches About Events 274
Speeches About Concepts 275
Guidelines for Informative Speaking 277
Don’t Overestimate What the Audience Knows 277
Relate the Subject Directly to the Audience 278
Don’t Be Too Technical 280
Avoid Abstractions 281
Personalize Your Ideas 283
Be Creative 284
Sample Speech with Commentary 285
©Patrick T. Fallon/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Contents xi
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xii Contents
Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 290
The Importance of Persuasion 292
Ethics and Persuasion 292
The Psychology of Persuasion 293
The Challenge of Persuasive Speaking 293
How Listeners Process Persuasive Messages 294
The Target Audience 295
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Fact 296
What Are Questions of Fact? 296
Analyzing Questions of Fact 297
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Fact 298
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Value 298
What Are Questions of Value? 298
Analyzing Questions of Value 299
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Value 299
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Policy 300
What Are Questions of Policy? 300
Types of Speeches on Questions of Policy 301
Analyzing Questions of Policy 302
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Policy 304
Sample Speech with Commentary 310
Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion 316
Building Credibility 318
Factors of Credibility 318
Types of Credibility 319
Enhancing Your Credibility 320
Using Evidence 322
How Evidence Works: A Case Study 322
Tips for Using Evidence 324
Reasoning 325
Reasoning from Specific Instances 327
Reasoning from Principle 328
Causal Reasoning 328
Analogical Reasoning 329
Fallacies 330
Appealing to Emotions 334
What Are Emotional Appeals? 334
Generating Emotional Appeal 335
Ethics and Emotional Appeal 337
Sample Speech with Commentary 338
©Joshua Blanchard/Getty Images
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Contents xiii
Chapter 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344
Speeches of Introduction 344
Speeches of Presentation 348
Speeches of Acceptance 349
Commemorative Speeches 350
Chapter 19 Presenting Your Speech
Online 356
The Special Nature of the Online Environment 358
Kinds of Online Speeches 358
Guidelines for Online Speaking 359
Control the Visual Environment 359
Adapt Your Nonverbal Communication 362
Adjust Your Pacing 362
Don’t Forget Your Audience 363
Practice, Practice, Practice 363
The Technology of Real-Time Online Speeches 366
Choosing the Software 366
Learning the Software 366
Have a Backup Plan 366
Sample Speech with Commentary 367
Chapter 20 Speaking in Small Groups 372
What Is a Small Group? 374
Leadership in Small Groups 374
Kinds of Leadership 374
Functions of Leadership 376
Responsibilities in a Small Group 377
Commit Yourself to the Goals of Your Group 377
Fulfill Individual Assignments 378
Avoid Interpersonal Conflicts 378
Encourage Full Participation 379
Keep the Discussion on Track 380
The Reflective-Thinking Method 380
Define the Problem 380
Analyze the Problem 382
Establish Criteria for Solutions 383
Generate Potential Solutions 384
Select the Best Solution 384
Presenting the Recommendations of the Group 386
Oral Report 386
Symposium 387
Panel Discussion 387
©Nick David/Getty Images
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xiv Contents
Appendix Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1
Lady Liberty A-2
Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3
The Living-Wage Solution A-5
Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7
Make a Wish A-9
Elie Wiesel A-10
Notes N1
Index I1
The Courtyard (Sample Speech with Commentary) 69
Fearless (Sample Speech with Commentary) 70
Supervolcanoes: The Sleeping Giants (Sample Speech with Commentary) 285
Getting the Lead Out (Sample Speech with Commentary) 310
Changing Lives Through the Literacy Network (Sample Speech with
Commentary) 338
Presenting the National Teacher of the Year Award Barack Obama 348
Accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award Shanna Peeples 350
Ida B. Wells 353
charity: water (Sample Speech with Commentary) 368
Lady Liberty A-2
Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3
The Living-Wage Solution A-5
Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7
Make a Wish A-9
Elie Wiesel A-10
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Contents xv
The Courtyard 69
Fearless 70
Space Junk (Sample Introduction with Commentary) 187
Space Junk (Sample Conclusion with Commentary) 193
Beneficial Bacteria (Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary) 203
Beneficial Bacteria (Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary) 208
Supervolcanoes: The Sleeping Giants 285
Lady Liberty A-2
Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3
Getting the Lead Out 310
Changing Lives Through the Literacy Network 338
The Living-Wage Solution A-5
Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7
Presenting the National Teacher of the Year Award Barack Obama 348
Accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award Shanna Peeples 350
Ida B. Wells 353
Make a Wish A-9
Elie Wiesel A-10
charity: water 368
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When I wrote the first edition of The Art of Public Speaking, I could not have imagined the extraordinary response the book would receive. I am deeply appreciative of the students and teachers who have made it the leading
work on its subject at colleges and universities across the United States and around
the world.
In preparing this edition, I have retained what readers have identified as the main
strengths of the book. The Art of Public Speaking is informed by classical and
contemporary theories of rhetoric, but it does not present theory for its own sake.
Keeping a steady eye on the practical skills of public speaking, it offers full coverage of
all major aspects of speech preparation and presentation.
It also follows David Hume’s advice that one “who would teach eloquence must do
it chiefly by examples.” Whenever possible, I have tried to show the principles of public
speaking in action in addition to describing them. Thus you will find in the book a large
number of narratives, speech excerpts, and full sample speeches that illustrate the prin-
ciples of effective public speaking.
Because the immediate task facing students is to present speeches in the classroom,
I rely heavily on examples that relate directly to students’ classroom needs and experi-
ences. The speech classroom, however, is a training ground where students develop
skills that will serve them throughout life. Therefore, I also include a large number of
illustrations drawn from the kinds of speaking experiences students will face after they
graduate from college.
Because speeches are performative acts, students need to be able to view speakers
in action as well as to read their words on the printed page. The Art of Public Speaking
has an extensive video program that is available both on DVD and on Connect,
McGraw-Hill’s online learning platform. The video program includes over 40 full stu-
dent speeches, plus more than 60 speech excerpts. Eleven of the full speeches and 18 of
the excerpts are new to this edition.
Connect also provides a wide range of teaching and learning resources in addition
to the speech videos. These resources include SmartBook, hands-on study tools,
critical-thinking exercises, speech-analysis questions, worksheets, assessment forms,
and more. Taken together, The Art of Public Speaking and the digital resources available
on Connect provide a time-tested interactive public speaking program that meets the
needs of students and teachers alike.
The Art of Public Speaking has changed over the years in response to changes in
technology, student demographics, and instructional needs. But it has never lost sight
of the fact that the most important part of speaking is thinking. The ability to think
critically is vital to a world in which personality and image too often substitute for
thought and substance. While helping students become capable, responsible speakers,
The Art of Public Speaking also aims to help them become capable, responsible thinkers
who value the role of civil discourse in a democratic society.
A Note from the Author
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Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition of The
Art of Public Speaking
Fully updated for the thirteenth edition, the award-winning Art of Public Speaking
offers a time-tested approach that has made it the most widely used college text-
book on its subject in the world. Seamlessly coordinated with Connect, McGraw-
Hill Education’s pathbreaking online program, it supplies a proven set of teaching
and learning tools that is without parallel among public speaking books.
For experienced instructors, The Art of Public Speaking presents a solid, fully
customizable foundation and an abundance of teaching aids from which to
choose, allowing for complete teaching f lexibility in the course. For novice
instructors, its wisdom, steady hand, and unmatched ancillary package instill con-
fidence and build success in the classroom from day one.
■ New chapter on presenting online speeches. This chapter gives students the
guidance they need for effective online speaking. Distinguishing between
recorded and real-time online speeches, it explains the unique features of
each and how students can adapt to those features when preparing, rehears-
ing, and delivering their speeches. Practical guidelines help students control
the visual environment, create a suitable relationship with the online audi-
ence, and use online presentation software skillfully and professionally. A full
sample speech with commentary illustrates the principles of effective online
speaking in action. Video of the speech is available on DVD and Connect, in
both final and needs improvement versions.
■ New full student speeches. The Art of Public Speaking video program is designed
to bridge the gap between the written page and the spoken word. Toward this
end, the thirteenth edition has 11 new full speeches for analysis and discus-
sion, all of which are available in both print and digital formats. They include
two new speeches of self-introduction, two new informative speeches (includ-
ing a demonstration speech), a new persuasive speech, a new commemorative
speech, and a new online speech—plus four new needs improvement speeches.
■ Other video resources. The Art of Public Speaking’s video program also includes
more than 60 speech excerpts that are fully integrated into the eBook. Stu-
dents can access these excerpts—along with full speeches—as they read the
book to see the principles of public speaking in action. Whether a full speech
or an excerpt, each video illustrates specific skills and concepts from the text.
■ Improved coverage of introduction and conclusions. Chapter 10 features new
sample introductions and conclusions with commentary, both of which are
also available on video. The chapter also includes a new section on using
visual aids to gain attention and interest at the start of a speech.
■ Fresh real-world examples. Every chapter of The Art of Public Speaking opens
with an engaging and relevant example, and dozens of additional examples
appear throughout the chapters, each demonstrating the importance of pub-
lic speaking in school, business, and social settings.  As in every edition,
examples have been updated for currency, relevance, and interest.
■ Improved discussion of audience analysis. Chapter 6, on audience analysis, has
been fine-tuned to take account of changes in audience demographics and
A Note from the Author xvii
luc24602_fm_i-xxiv_1.indd 17 10/09/18 3:48 PM
xviii A Note from the Author
public attitudes. This is most evident in the treatment of gender and sexual
orientation, but there are changes throughout the chapter to keep it up to date.
■ Updated MLA and APA citation models. Chapter 7, on gathering materials,
presents all-new sample bibliography entries, reflecting the latest MLA and
APA citation formats to help students correctly cite academic, digital, and
other sources. As in each edition, the chapter as a whole has been revised to
reflect technological changes.
■ Enhanced discussion of presentation technology. Guidance on the use of visual
aids and presentation technology has been updated in accord with current
developments. Best practices are illustrated by abundant examples in the
book and on speech videos.
McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor
McGraw-Hill Connect® is a highly reliable, easy-to-use homework and learning
management solution that utilizes learning science and award-winning adaptive
tools to improve student results.
Connect’s assignments help students contextualize what they’ve learned
through application, so they can better understand the material and think criti-
cally about it.
luc24602_fm_i-xxiv_1.indd 18 10/09/18 3:48 PM
SmartBook provides an interactive reading experience that helps students study
more efficiently through adaptive highlighting and review. As a student uses
SmartBook, it creates a personalized learning path that highlights the most
important concepts the student needs to grasp at that moment in time. The learn-
ing path continuously adapts by delivering a variety of dynamic digital learning
resources that are catered to each student’s needs. These resources help students
learn the material, retain more knowledge, and earn better grades.
The Connect eBook makes it easy for students to access their study material on
smartphones and tablets. They can study on the go and don’t need Internet access
to use the eBook with full functionality.
Connect Insight® provides instructors easy-to-read reports on individual stu-
dents, on the class as a whole, and on specific assignments. The Connect Insight
dashboard delivers data on performance, study behavior, and effort. Instructors
can quickly identify students who are struggling and can help them focus on mate-
rial that they need to master.
A Note from the Author xix
luc24602_fm_i-xxiv_1.indd 19 10/09/18 3:48 PM
LearnSmart Instructor Reports make it easy to pinpoint the help individual stu-
dents need to improve their performance. Reports also identify concepts and
learning objectives that may be unclear to the class as a whole. With this informa-
tion, instructors can target areas for discussion and review.
Some key LearnSmart reports include:
Progress Overview report—View student progress for all LearnSmart modules,
including how long students have spent working in each module and which mod-
ules they have used outside of those that were assigned.
Missed Questions report—Identify specific LearnSmart probes, organized by
chapter, that are problematic for students.
Most Challenging Learning Objectives report—Learn which topics are most chal-
lenging for your students. Reports are organized by chapter and include specific
page references. Use this …

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