See Chapter 11 from the textbook attached, the article by Baez (2013), the assigned chapters in the U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration (2006) guide, and view the video Psychometric testing and employment.?
Use the PSY640 Checklist for Evaluating Tests document attached to compare two assessment instruments used in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology assessment? Based on the information in the text and assigned readings, select and evaluate two psychological tests used in industrial-organizational psychological assessment. Do not evaluate any of the tests evaluated in Applications in Personality Testing document attached?
In addition to chapter 11 from text attached, locate a minimum of two appropriate scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources to aid in the analysis of the psychometric properties of the instruments based on published data. Provide the names of the two tests you evaluated, and attach your completed PSY640 Checklist for Evaluating Tests document.Please maintain the original format of the PSY640 Checklist for Evaluating Tests document attached and include the chapter 11 from the textbook and two additional scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources in the references section?.
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Cornell HR Review
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Personality Tests in Employment Selection: Use
With Caution
H. Beau Baez
Charlotte School of Law
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Personality Tests in Employment Selection: Use With Caution
Abstract
[Excerpt] Many employers utilize personality tests in the employment selection process to identify people
who have more than just the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in their jobs.[1] If anecdotes are
to be believed—Dilbert must be getting at something or the cartoon strip would not be so popular—the work
place is full of people whose personalities are a mismatch for the positions they hold. Psychology has the
ability to measure personality and emotional intelligence (“EQ”), which can provide employers with data to
use in the selection process. “Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral
traits”[2] and “emotional intelligence consists of the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate
emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion.”[3] By using a scientific
approach in hiring, employers can increase their number of successful employees.
Keywords
HR Review, Human Resources, employment selection, personality tests
Disciplines
Human Resources Management | Labor Relations
Comments
Suggested Citation:
Baez H. (2013, January 26). Personality tests in employment selection: Use with caution. Cornell HR Review.
Retrieved [insert date] from Cornell University, ILR School site: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/chrr/
59
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Cornell University ILR School
[email protected]
1-26-2013
Personality Tests in Employment Selection: Use With Caution
H. Beau Baez
Personality Tests in Employment Selection: Use With Caution
Abstract
Keywords
Disciplines
Comments
www.cornellhrreview.org/…Personality-Testing.pdf
CHAPTER 11
Industrial, Occupational,
and Career Assessment
TOPIC 11A Industrial and
Organizational Assessment
11.1 The Role of Testing in Personnel Selection
11.2 Autobiographical Data
11.3 The Employment Interview
11.4 Cognitive Ability Tests
11.5 Personality Tests
11.6 Paper-and-Pencil Integrity Tests
11.7 Work Sample and Situational Exercises
11.8 Appraisal of Work Performance
11.9 Approaches to Performance Appraisal
11.10 Sources of Error in Performance
Appraisal
In this chapter we explore the specialized
applications of testing within two distinctive
environments—occupational settings and
vocational settings. Although disparate in many
respects, these two fields of assessment share
essential features. For example, legal guidelines
exert a powerful and constraining influence
upon the practice of testing in both arenas.
Moreover, issues of empirical validation of
methods are especially pertinent in occupational
and areas of practice. In Topic 11A, Industrial
and Organizational Assessment, we review the
role of psychological tests in making decisions
about personnel such as hiring, placement,
promotion, and evaluation. In Topic 11B,
Assessment for Career Development in a Global
Economy, we analyze the unique challenges
encountered by vocational psychologists who
provide career guidance and assessment. Of
course, relevant tests are surveyed and
catalogued throughout. But more important, we
focus upon the special issues and challenges
encountered within these distinctive milieus.
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O
psychology) is the subspecialty of psychology
that deals with behavior in work situations
(Borman, Ilgen, Klimoski, & Weiner, 2003). In
its broadest sense, I/O psychology includes
diverse applications in business, advertising,
and the military. For example, corporations
typically consult I/O psychologists to help
design and evaluate hiring procedures;
businesses may ask I/O psychologists to
appraise the effectiveness of advertising; and
military leaders rely heavily upon I/O
psychologists in the testing and placement of
recruits. Psychological testing in the service of
decision making about personnel is, thus, a
prominent focus of this profession. Of course,
specialists in I/O psychology possess broad
skills and often handle many corporate
responsibilities not previously mentioned.
Nonetheless, there is no denying the centrality
of assessment to their profession.
We begin our review of assessment in the
occupational arena by surveying the role of
testing in personnel selection. This is followed
by a discussion of ways that psychological
measurement is used in the appraisal of work
performance.
11.1 THE ROLE OF TESTING
IN PERSONNEL SELECTION
Complexities of Personnel Selection
Based upon the assumption that psychological
tests and assessments can provide valuable
information about potential job performance,
many businesses, corporations, and military
settings have used test scores and assessment
results for personnel selection. As Guion (1998)
has noted, I/O research on personnel selection
has emphasized criterion-related validity as
opposed to content or construct validity. These
other approaches to validity are certainly
relevant but usually take a back seat to criterion-
related validity, which preaches that current
assessment results must predict the future
criterion of job performance.
From the standpoint of criterion-related validity,
the logic of personnel selection is seductively
simple. Whether in a large corporation or a
small business, those who select employees
should use tests or assessments that have
documented, strong correlations with the
criterion of job performance, and then hire the
individuals who obtain the highest test scores or
show the strongest assessment results. What
could be simpler than that?
Unfortunately, the real-world application of
employment selection procedures is fraught
with psychometric complexities and legal
pitfalls. The psychometric intricacies arise, in
large measure, from the fact that job behavior is
rarely simple, unidimensional behavior. There
are some exceptions (such as assembly-line
production) but the general rule in our
postindustrial society is that job behavior is
complex, multidimensional behavior. Even jobs
that seem simple may be highly complex. For
example, consider what is required for effective
performance in the delivery of the U.S. mail.
The individual who delivers your mail six days
a week must do more than merely place it in
your mailbox. He or she must accurately sort
mail on the run, interpret and enforce
government regulations about package size,
manage pesky and even dangerous animals,
recognize and avoid physical dangers, and
exercise effective interpersonal skills in dealing
with the public, to cite just a few of the
complexities of this position.
Personnel selection is, therefore, a fuzzy,
conditional, and uncertain task. Guion (1991)
has highlighted the difficulty in predicting
complex behavior from simple tests. For one
thing, complex behavior is, in part, a function of
the situation. This means that even an optimal
selection approach may not be valid for all
candidates. Quite clearly, personnel selection is
not a simple matter of administering tests and
consulting cutoff scores.
We must also acknowledge the profound impact
of legal and regulatory edicts upon I/O testing
practices. Given that such practices may have
weighty consequences—determining who is
hired or promoted, for example—it is not
surprising to learn that I/O testing practices are
rigorously constrained by legal precedents and
regulatory mandates. These topics are reviewed
in Topic 12A, Psychological Testing and the
Law.
Approaches to Personnel Selection
Acknowledging that the interview is a widely
used form of personnel assessment, it is safe to
conclude that psychological assessment is
almost a universal practice in hiring decisions.
Even by a narrow definition that includes only
paper-and-pencil measures, at least two-thirds of
the companies in the United States engage in
personnel testing (Schmitt & Robertson, 1990).
For purposes of personnel selection, the I/O
psychologist may recommend one or more of
the following:
• Autobiographical data
• Employment interview
• Cognitive ability tests
• Personality, temperament, and motivation
tests
• Paper-and-pencil integrity tests
• Sensory, physical, and dexterity tests
• Work sample and situational tests
We turn now to a brief survey of typical tests
and assessment approaches within each of these
categories. We close this topic with a discussion
of legal issues in personnel testing.
11.2 AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL
DATA
According to Owens (1976), application forms
that request personal and work history as well as
demographic data such as age and marital status
have been used in industry since at least 1894.
Objective or scorable autobiographical data—
sometimes called biodata—are typically
secured by means of a structured form variously
referred to as a biographical information blank,
biographical data form, application blank,
interview guide, individual background survey,
or similar device. Although the lay public may
not recognize these devices as true tests with
predictive power, I/O psychologists have known
for some time that biodata furnish an
exceptionally powerful basis for the prediction
of employee performance (Cascio, 1976;
Ghiselli, 1966; Hunter & Hunter, 1984). An
important milestone in the biodata approach is
the publication of the Biodata Handbook, a
thorough survey of the use of biographical
information in selection and the prediction of
performance (Stokes, Mumford, & Owens,
1994).
The rationale for the biodata approach is that
future work-related behavior can be predicted
from past choices and accomplishments.
Biodata have predictive power because certain
character traits that are essential for success also
are stable and enduring. The consistently
ambitious youth with accolades and
accomplishments in high school is likely to
continue this pattern into adulthood. Thus, the
job applicant who served as editor of the high
school newspaper—and who answers a biodata
item to this effect—is probably a better
candidate for corporate management than the
applicant who reports no extracurricular
activities on a biodata form.
The Nature of Biodata
Biodata items usually call for “factual” data;
however, items that tap attitudes, feelings, and
value judgments are sometimes included.
Except for demographic data such as age and
marital status, biodata items always refer to past
accomplishments and events. Some examples of
biodata items are listed in Table 11.1.
Once biodata are collected, the I/O psychologist
must devise a means for predicting job
performance from this information. The most
common strategy is a form of empirical keying
not unlike that used in personality testing. From
a large sample of workers who are already
hired, the I/O psychologist designates a
successful group and an unsuccessful group,
based on performance, tenure, salary, or
supervisor ratings. Individual biodata items are
then contrasted for these two groups to
determine which items most accurately
discriminate between successful and
unsuccessful workers. Items that are strongly
discriminative are assigned large weights in the
scoring scheme. New applicants who respond to
items in the keyed direction, therefore, receive
high scores on the biodata instrument and are
predicted to succeed. Cross validation of the
scoring scheme on a second sample of
successful and unsuccessful workers is a crucial
step in guaranteeing the validity of the biodata
selection method. Readers who wish to pursue
the details of empirical scoring methods for
biodata instruments should consult Murphy and
Davidshofer (2004), Mount, Witt, and Barrick
(2000), and Stokes and Cooper (2001).
TABLE 11.1 Examples of Biodata Questions
How long have you lived at your present
address?
What is your highest educational degree?
How old were you when you obtained your first
paying job?
How many books (not work related) did you
read last month?
At what age did you get your driver’s license?
In high school, did you hold a class office?
How punctual are you in arriving at work?
What job do you think you will hold in 10
years?
How many hours do you watch television in a
typical week?
Have you ever been fired from a job?
How many hours a week do you spend on
The Validity of Biodata
The validity of biodata has been surveyed by
several reviewers, with generally positive
findings (Breaugh, 2009; Stokes et al., 1994;
Stokes & Cooper, 2004). An early study by
Cascio (1976) is typical of the findings. He used
a very simple biodata instrument—a weighted
combination of 10 application blank items—to
predict turnover for female clerical personnel in
a medium-sized insurance company. The cross-
validated correlations between biodata score and
length of tenure were .58 for minorities and .56
for nonminorities.1 Drakeley et al. (1988)
compared biodata and cognitive ability tests as
predictors of training success. Biodata scores
possessed the same predictive validity as the
cognitive tests. Furthermore, when added to the
regression equation, the biodata information
improved the predictive accuracy of the
cognitive tests.
In an extensive research survey, Reilly and Chao
(1982) compared eight selection procedures as
to validity and adverse impact on minorities.
The procedures were biodata, peer evaluation,
interviews, self-assessments, reference checks,
academic achievement, expert judgment, and
projective techniques. Noting that properly
standardized ability tests provide the fairest and
most valid selection procedure, Reilly and Chao
(1982) concluded that only biodata and peer
evaluations had validities substantially equal to
those of standardized tests. For example, in the
prediction of sales productivity, the average
validity coefficient of biodata was a very
healthy .62.
Certain cautions need to be mentioned with
respect to biodata approaches in personnel
selection. Employers may be prohibited by law
from asking questions about age, race, sex,
religion, and other personal issues—even when
such biodata can be shown empirically to
predict job performance. Also, even though the
incidence of faking is very low, there is no
doubt that shrewd respondents can falsify results
in a favorable direction. For example, Schmitt
and Kunce (2002) addressed the concern that
some examinees might distort their answers to
biodata items in a socially desirable direction.
These researchers compared the scores obtained
when examinees were asked to elaborate their
biodata responses versus when they were not.
Requiring elaborated answers reduced the
scores on biodata items; that is, it appears that
respondents were more truthful when asked to
provide corroborating details to their written
responses.
Recently, Levashina, Morgeson, and Campion
(2012) proved the same point in a large scale,
high-stakes selection project with 16,304
applicants for employment. Biodata constituted
a significant portion of the selection procedure.
The researchers used the response elaboration
technique (RET), which obliges job applicants
to provide written elaborations of their
responses. Perhaps an example will help. A
naked, unadorned biodata question might ask:
• How many times in the last 12 months did
you develop novel solutions to a work
problem in your area of responsibility?
Most likely, a higher number would indicate
greater creativity and empirically predict
superior work productivity. The score on this
item would be combined with others to produce
an overall biodata score used in personnel
selection. But notice that nothing prevents the
respondent from exaggeration or outright lying.
Now, consider the original question with the
addition of response elaboration:
• How many times in the last 12 months did
you develop novel solutions to a work
problem in your area of responsibility?
• For each circumstance, please provide
specific details as to the problem and your
solution.
Levashina et al. (2012) found that using the
RET technique produced more honest and
realistic biodata scores. Further, for those items
possessing the potential for external verification,
responses were even more realistic. The
researchers conclude that RET decreases faking
because it increases accountability.
As with any measurement instrument, biodata
items will need periodic restandardization.
Finally, a potential drawback to the biodata
approach is that, by its nature, this method
captures the organizational status quo and
might, therefore, squelch innovation. Becker
and Colquitt (1992) discuss precautions in the
development of biodata forms.
The use of biodata in personnel selection
appears to be on the rise. Some corporations
rely on biodata almost to the exclusion of other
approaches in screening applicants. The
software giant Google is a case in point. In years
past, the company used traditional methods such
as hiring candidates from top schools who
earned the best grades. But that tactic now is
used rarely in industry. Instead, many
corporations like Google are moving toward
automated systems that collect biodata from the
many thousands of applicants processed each
year. Using online surveys, these companies ask
applicants to provide personal details about
accomplishments, attitudes, and behaviors as far
back as high school. Questions can be quite
detailed, such as whether the applicant has ever
published a book, received a patent, or started a
club. Formulas are then used to compute a score
from 0 to 100, designed to predict the degree to
fit with corporate culture (Ottinger & Kurzon,
2007). The system works well for Google,
which claims to have only a 4 percent turnover
rate.
There is little doubt, then, that purely objective
biodata information can predict aspects of job
performance with fair accuracy. However,
employers are perhaps more likely to rely upon
subjective information such as interview
impressions when making decisions about
hiring. We turn now to research on the validity
of the employment interview in the selection
process.
1The curious reader may wish to know which 10 biodata items
could possess such predictive power. The items were age,
marital status, children’s age, education, tenure on previous job,
previous salary, friend or relative in company, location of
residence, home ownership, and length of time at present
address. Unfortunately, Cascio (1976) does not reveal the
relative weights or direction of scoring for the items.
11.3 THE EMPLOYMENT
INTERVIEW
The employment interview is usually only one
part of the evaluation process, but many
administrators regard it as the vital make-or-
break component of hiring. It is not unusual for
companies to interview from 5 to 20 individuals
for each person hired! Considering the
importance of the interview and its huge costs to
industry and the professions, it is not surprising
to learn that thousands of studies address the
reliability and validity of the interview. We can
only highlight a few trends here; more detailed
reviews can be found in Conway, Jako, and
Goodman (1995), Huffcutt (2007), Guion
(1998), and Schmidt and Zimmerman (2004).
Early studies of interview reliability were quite
sobering. In various studies and reviews,
reliability was typically assessed by correlating
evaluations of different interviewers who had
access to the same job candidates (Wagner,
1949; Ulrich & Trumbo, 1965). The interrater
reliability from dozens of these early studies
was typically in the mid-.50s, much too low to
provide accurate assessments of job candidates.
This research also revealed that interviewers
were prone to halo bias and other distorting
influences upon their perceptions of candidates.
Halo bias—discussed in the next topic—is the
tendency to rate a candidate high or low on all
dimensions because of a global impression.
Later, researchers discovered that interview
reliability could be increased substantially if the
interview was jointly conducted by a panel
instead of a single interviewer (Landy, 1996). In
addition, structured interviews in which each
candidate was asked the same questions by each
interviewer also proved to be much more
reliable than unstructured interviews (Borman,
Hanson, & Hedge, 1997; Campion, Pursell, &
Brown, 1988). In these studies, reliabilities in
the .70s and higher were found.
Research on validity of the interview has
followed the same evolutionary course noted for
reliability: Early research that examined
unstructured interviews was quite pessimistic,
while later research using structured approaches
produced more promising findings. In these
studies, interview validity was typically
assessed by correlating interview judgments
with some measure of on-the-job performance.
Early studies of interview validity yielded
almost uniformly dismal results, with typical
validity coefficients hovering in the mid-.20s
(Arvey & Campion, 1982).
Mindful that interviews are seldom used in
isolation, early researchers also investigated
incremental validity, which is the potential
increase in validity when the interview is used
in conjunction with other information. These
studies were predicated on the optimistic
assumption that the interview would contribute
positively to candidate evaluation when used
alongside objective test scores and background
data. Unfortunately, the initial findings were
almost entirely unsupportive (Landy, 1996).
In some instances, attempts to prove
incremental validity of the interview
demonstrated just the opposite, what might be
called decremental validity. For example, Kelly
and Fiske (1951) established that interview
information actually decreased the validity of
graduate student evaluations. In this early and
classic study, the task was to predict the
academic performance of more than 500
graduate students in psychology. Various
combinations of credentials (a form of biodata),
objective test scores, and interview were used as
the basis for clinical predictions of academic
performance. The validity coefficients are
reported in Table 11.2. The reader will notice
that credentials alone provided a much better
basis for prediction than credentials plus a one-
hour interview. The best predictions were based
upon credentials and objective test scores;
adding a two-hour interview to this information
actually decreased the accuracy of predictions.
These findings highlighted the superiority of
actuarial prediction (based on empirically
derived formulas) over clinical prediction
(based on subjective impressions). We pursue
the actuarial versus clinical debate in the last
chapter of this text.
Studies using carefully structured interviews,
including situational interviews, provide a more
positive picture of interview validity (Borman,
Hanson, & Hedge, 1997; Maurer & Fay, 1988;
Schmitt & Robertson, 1990). When the findings
are corrected for restriction of range and
unreliability of job performance ratings, the
mean validity coefficient for structured
interviews turns out to be an impressive .63
(Wiesner & Cronshaw, 1988). A meta-analysis
by Conway, Jako, and Goodman (1995)
concluded that the upper limit for the validity
coefficient of structured interviews was .67,
whereas for unstructured interviews the validity
coefficient was only .34. Additional reasons for
preferring structured interviews include their
legal defensibility in the event of litigation
(Williamson, Campion, Malo, and others, 1997)
and, surprisingly, their minimal bias across
different racial groups of applicants (Huffcutt &
Roth, 1998).
TABLE 11.2 Validity Coefficients for Ratings
Based on Various Combinations of
Information
Basis for Rating Correlation with
Credentials alone 0.26
Credentials and one-hour
interview
0.13
Credentials and objective
test scores
0.36
Credentials, test scores,
and two-hour interview
0.32
Source: Based on data in Kelly, E. L., & Fiske, D. W.
(1951). The prediction of performance in clinical
psychology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
In order to reach acceptable levels of reliability
and validity, structured interviews must be
designed with painstaking care. Consider the
protocol used by Motowidlo et al. (1992) in
their research on structured interviews for
management and marketing positions in eight
telecommunications companies. Their interview
format was based upon a careful analysis of
critical incidents in marketing and management.
Prospective employees were asked a set of
standard questions about how they had handled
past situations similar to these critical incidents.
Interviewers were trained to ask discretionary
probing questions for details about how the
applicants handled these situations. Throughout,
the interviewers took copious notes. Applicants
were then rated on scales anchored with
behavioral illustrations. Finally, these ratings
were combined to yield a total interview score
used in selection decisions.
In summary, under carefully designed
conditions, the interview can provide a reliable
and valid basis for personnel selection.
However, as noted by Schmitt and Robertson
(1990), the prerequisite conditions for interview
validity are not always available. Guion (1998)
has expressed the same point:
A large body of research on interviewing has, in
my opinion, given too little practical
information about how to structure an
interview, how to conduct it, and how to
use it as an assessment device. I think I
know from the research that (a) interviews
can be valid, (b) for validity they require
structuring and standardization, (c) that
structure, like many other things, can be
carried too far, (d) that without carefully
planned structure (and maybe even with it)
interviewers talk too much, and (e) that the
interviews made routinely in nearly every
organization could be vastly improved if
interviewers were aware of and used these
conclusions. There is more to be learned
and applied. (p. 624)
The essential problem is that each interviewer
may evaluate only a small number of applicants,
so that standardization of interviewer ratings is
not always realistic. While the interview is
potentially valid as a selection technique, in its
common, unstructured application there is
probably substantial reason for concern.
Why are interviews used? If the typical,
unstructured interview is so unreliable and
ineffectual a basis for job candidate evaluation,
why do administrators continue to value
interviews so highly? In their review of the
employment interview, Arvey and Campion
(1982) outline several reasons for the
persistence of the interview, including practical
considerations such as the need to sell the
candidate on the job, and social reasons such as
the susceptibility of interviewers to the illusion
of personal validity. Others have emphasized the
importance of the interview for assessing a good
fit between applicant and organization (Adams,
Elacqua, & Colarelli, 1994; Latham & Skarlicki,
1995).
It is difficult to imagine that most employers
would ever eliminate entirely the interview from
the screening and selection process. After all,
the interview does serve the simple human need
of meeting the persons who might be hired.
However, based on 50 years worth of research,
it is evident that biodata and objective tests
often provide a more powerful basis for
candidate evaluation and selection than
unstructured interviews.
One interview component that has received
recent attention is the impact of the handshake
on subsequent ratings of job candidates.
Stewart, Dustin, Barrick, and Darnold (2008)
used simulated hiring interviews to investigate
the commonly held conviction that a firm
handshake bears a critical nonverbal influence
on impressions formed during the employment
interview. Briefly, 98 undergraduates underwent
realistic job interviews during which their
handshakes were surreptitiously rated on 5-point
scales for grip strength, completeness, duration,
and vigor; degree of eye contact during the
handshake also was rated. Independent ratings
were completed at different times by five
individuals involved in the process. Real
human-resources professionals conducted the
interviews and then offered simulated hiring
recommendations. The professionals shook
hands with the candidates but were not asked to
provide handshake ratings because this would
have cued them to the purposes of the study.
This is the barest outline of this complex
investigation. The big picture that emerged was
that the quality of the handshake was positively
related to hiring recommendations. Further,
women benefited more than men from a strong
handshake. The researchers conclude their study
with these thoughts:
The handshake is thought to have originated in
medieval Europe as a way for kings and
knights to show that they did not intend to
harm each other and possessed no
concealed weapons (Hall & Hall, 1983).
The results presented in this study show
that this age-old social custom has an
important place in modern business
interactions. Although the handshake may
appear to be a business formality, it can
indeed communicate critical information
and influence interviewer assessments. (p.
1145)
Perhaps this study will provide an impetus for
additional investigation of this important
component of the job interview.
Barrick, Swider, and Stewart (2010) make the
general case that initial impressions formed in
the first few seconds or minutes of the
employment interview significantly influence
the final outcomes. They cite the social
psychology literature to argue that initial
impressions are nearly instinctual and based on
evolutionary mechanisms that aid survival.
Handshake, smile, grooming, manner of dress—
the interviewer gauges these as favorable (or
not) almost instantaneously. The purpose of
their study was to examine whether these “fast
and frugal” judgments formed in the first few
seconds or minutes even before the “real”
interview begins affect interview outcomes.
Participants for their research were 189
undergraduate students in a program for
professional accountants. The students were pre-
interviewed for just 2-3 minutes by trained
graduate students for purposes of rapport
building, before a more thorough structured
mock interview was conducted. After the brief
pre-interview, the graduate interviewers filled
out a short rating scale on liking for the
candidate, the candidate’s competence, and
perceived “personal” similarity. The
interviewers then conducted a full structured
interview and filled out ratings. Weeks after
these mock interviews, participants engaged in
real interviews with four major accounting firms
(Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Ernst & Young,
KPMG, and PricewaterhouseCoopers) to
determine whether they would receive an offer
of an internship. Just over half of the students
received an offer. Candidates who made better
first impressions during the initial pre-interview
(that lasted just 2-3 minutes) …
Applications In Personality Testing
Computer-generated MMPI-3 case description
In the case of Mr. J, the computerized report displayed various results. High T response
was generated for various tests. Infrequent responses were highly reported whereas the response
bias scale T score is one the second-highest level. The highest T score level was obtained for
Emotional internalizing dysfunction whereas the lowest T-score was generated for hypomanic
activation. The result generated showed 4 unscorable reports which indicated that the test was
repeated many times. Infrequent responses have 35 items on them. No underreporting was done
by the client. Substantive scale interpretation showed no somatic dysfunction. Response done
measure through the scale indicates a high level of distress and significant demoralization.
Reports also indicate a high level of negative emotionality. And these also indicate high levels of
emotional dysfunctionality in the client due to which he is unable to get out of stress and despair.
There are no indications reported regarding thoughts and behavioral dysfunction. Interpersonal
functioning scales indicate that he is lacking positivity in his life and he is more embarrassed and
nervous in any kind of situation. He has become socially awkward and feels distant from every
person out there. He is more of an introverted kind of person. The diagnostic considerations
report that he has an emotional internalizing disorder which includes major depression,
generalized anxiety, and excessive worrying disorders. Other than that the client is also facing
personality disorders due to which he is becoming more negative regarding every situation of
life. He is also having several anhedonia-related disorders. The client’s report also indicates that
he is suffering from interpersonal disorders as well. He is facing social anxiety and an increased
level of stress as well. A various number of unscorable tests were also obtained like (DOM,
AGRR, FBS, VRIN, DSF, etc.). Critical responses were evaluated regarding suicidal death
idealization up to 72%, helplessness and hopelessness scored up to 86%, demoralization up to
80%, inefficacy till 77%, stress 68%, negative emotions 8%, shyness 69% and worry 65%.
Ms. S psychology report
Ms. S was serving in US Army and was having long-term anxiety and depression
disorder. Her disorders got better as soon as she started medication. There were good effects of
medication, especially in the depressive situation. But she started having acute symptoms of
distress and depression from the few days again as one of his platoon mates committed suicide.
There was no such aspect observed in the familial history of the client. Various tests were
performed and these tests include, a cognitive ability which indicated that the patient has a low
average range for cognitive ability scoring. There were certain weaknesses present which was
responsible for low-level estimation of functioning. She was a good average in several of the
tests like reading, sentence comprehension, Nelson Denny reading test. The score was improved
from 37 to 47%. Overall the scoring rate was as low as it was thought to be because she was well
educated. Her performance was reduced on WAIS-IV and other weaknesses were observed in
calculations. In some of the areas, her scoring was good which included the Ruff 2 & 7 Selective
Attention Test. Her language was fully fluent and there was no impairment observed. All of her
expressions and language were correct. There were no signs of visuospatial abilities observed
and everything regarding them was completely normal. Ms. S through her results showed no
problem with her memory retention but there was a small impairment seen in her attention-
demanding list. As far as her mood and personality were concerned she had a valid profile but at
this time she was going through extremely distressful conditions. These conditions were not
strong enough to name them depressive disorder but still, they had a quite huge impact on her.
There was no self-harm condition observed. Individual therapy will be recommended to the
client in which treatment of her anxiety disorder will be done. She will be given different tasks
that will help her distract herself from various things that are going on in her mind. She will be
allowed to use the calculator as well to see her shortcomings and in this way, her mind will be
diverted from the stressful condition and anxiety she is feeling.

Psychological evaluations
As the psychological evaluations are concerned both of these teats have their importance
and generated their kinds of results which were accurate in both of the scenarios. Both of them
met the APA standard and a good level of professionalism as well. Both of the tests provided
their way of assessment of the client’s psychological situation and both of them were right in
their diagnosis. MMPI-3 test was used in the analysis of both clients and it showed the incredible
results of their mental health situation. The psychometric methodologies that were applied during
Mr. J’s session were substantive scale interpretation, externalizing and interpersonal scale, and
cognitive dysfunction scales whereas in the case of Ms. S the methodologies applied were
cognitive ability testing and other reading and writing tests and methods. Two additional tests of
personality and emotional functioning are, thematic appreciation test (TAT) and the rotter
incomplete sentence test. These both can be used in both cases for the critical analysis of the
mental state of clients.in rotter tense, we can easily analyze the heart desire, wishes, and
emotions of the client. Their fears and attitudes can be known as well and can be evaluated
easily. TAT test cards can also help in the evaluation in which the photos are shown to the client
where they tell the cards according to their mental state, which helps in the analysis as well.

References
Gregory, R. J. (2014). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (7th ed.).
Boston, MA: Pearson.Chapter 8: Origins of Personality Testing. Chapter 9: Assessment
of Normality and Human Strengths
Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2020). MMPI-3 Case Description Mr. J – Interpretive Report
[PDF]. https://www.pearsonassessments.com/content/dam/school/global/clinical/us/
assets/mmpi-3/mmpi-3-sample-interpretive-report.pdf
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/91303/external_tools/retrieve?display=borderless&url=https%3A%2F%2Fcontent.ashford.edu%2Flti%3Fbookcode%3DGregory.8055.17.1
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/91303/files/16447603/download?verifier=htgTmm1qhZsYJDTsGecwYjQUXbQYSYqvdKImhPCV&wrap=1
https://www.pearsonassessments.com/content/dam/school/global/clinical/us/assets/mmpi-3/mmpi-3-sample-interpretive-report.pdf
https://www.pearsonassessments.com/content/dam/school/global/clinical/us/assets/mmpi-3/mmpi-3-sample-interpretive-report.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration. (2006). Testing and
assessment: A guide to good practices for workforce investment professionals [PDF].
Retrieved from http://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/attach/TEN/ten2007/TEN21-07a1.pdf
Kennedy, N., & Harper Y. (2020). PSY640 Week four psychological assessment report [PDF].
College of Health and Human Services, University of Arizona Global Campus, San
Diego, CA.
http://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/attach/TEN/ten2007/TEN21-07a1.pdf
http://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/attach/TEN/ten2007/TEN21-07a1.pdf
http://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/attach/TEN/ten2007/TEN21-07a1.pdf
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/91303/files/16447625/download?verifier=95064pAJMcBTq9kKPr61L2FiBECEkwCqJ4co6I0a&wrap=1
PSY640 CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING TESTS

Test Name and Versions

Assessment One

Assessment Two

Purpose(s) for Administering the Tests

Assessment One

Assessment Two

Characteristic(s) to be Measured by the Tests
(skill, ability, personality trait)

Assessment One

Assessment Two

Target Population
(education, experience level, other background)

Assessment One

Assessment Two

Test Characteristics

Assessment One

Assessment Two

1. Type (paper-and-pencil or computer):
Alternate forms available:

1. Scoring method (computer or manually):

1. Technical considerations:
a) Reliability: r =
b) Validity: r =
c) Reference/norm group:
d) Test fairness evidence:
e) Adverse impact evidence:
f) Applicability (indicate any special groups):

1. Administration considerations:

1. Administration time:

1. Materials needed (include start-up, operational, and scoring costs):

1. Facilities needed:

1. Staffing requirements:

1. Training requirements:

1. Other considerations (consider clarity, comprehensiveness, and utility):

1. Test manual information:

1. Supporting documents available from the publisher:

1. Publisher assistance:

1. Independent reviews:

Overall Evaluation
(One to two sentences providing your conclusions about the test you evaluated)

Assessment One

Assessment Two

Name of Test:

Name of Test:
References
List references in APA format as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.




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