It will be three short-answer IDs, and one essay question. I will need in 55 min when I open it
All the information you will need to prepare for the exam will come from your lecture notes, textbook, any in-class videos, and other class readings on Canvas. You are NOT allowed to use outside resources to do additional research
Lecture 1.1: Reconstruction
· Introduces the post-Civil War period
· Compares Presidential vs. Congressional Reconstruction
· Describes Black Codes, Freedmen’s Bureau, and Reconstruction Amendments

Lecture 1.2: Reconstruction
· Discusses the links between the abolitionist and women’s movements
· Highlights the successes and failures of Radical Republicanism in the face of Southern resistance
· Introduces President Johnson’s impeachment and his administration’s acquisition of Alaska 

Lecture 2.1: The Gilded Age
· Defines the Gilded Age and political corruption
· Examines problems and responses to Grant’s administration
· Outlines the terms of the Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction

Lecture 2.2: The Gilded Age
· Outlines Jim Crow laws and the start of segregation
· Highlights the rise of Populists and efforts to address racial and class differences in politics
· Traces the origins of racial discrimination through legislation targeting Chinese immigrants in the nineteenth century

Lecture 2.3: The Gilded Age
· Reviews the presidencies of Garfield and Arthur
· Describes the shift in politics under Cleveland
· Indicates the role of tariff policies in the economic depression of 1893

Lecture 3.1
· Defines the Second Industrial Revolution by identifying key features and characters
· Outlines the rise of new industries by highlighting the significance of railroads and electrification
· Explains the application of Social Darwinism on the basis of race and class

Lecture 3.2
· Traces the rise of cities through population growth and urbanization
· Emphasizes transformations in the lives of immigrants and laborers
· Suggests changes to city culture and family life in the late nineteenth century

Lecture 4.1
· Summarizes the methods employed by the US government to control Native Americans
· Reveals the trauma and cultural annihilation associated with assimilation at Indian Boarding Schools
· Highlights confrontation and legislation, which defined interactions between Native Americans and white settlers

Lecture 4.2
· Discusses the role of railroads in building up ranching, farming, and mining in the West
· Investigates the causes and implications of the Pullman Strike
· Introduces the 1896 election

Lecture 5.1
· Defines new imperialism and the motivations for empire in the United States
· Highlights the role of the United States in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii
· Summarizes the start of the Spanish-American War and the conflict in Cuba

Lecture 5.2
· Outlines major events in the Spanish-American War in the Philippines and Cuba
· Compares anti-imperialist views with those that promoted nationalism and empire
· Identifies foreign influence as a major cause and means of suppression during the Boxer Rebellion

Lecture 6.1
· Defines the core beliefs and major reforms of the Progressives
· Highlights the role of of women who advocated for social change and suffrage

Lecture 6.2
· Identifies the differences between Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois’ approaches to social justice and equality
· Describes the conservation movement and the creation of Yosemite National Park
· Summarizes the consequences of the San Francisco Earthquake in 1906

Lecture 7.1
· Outlines the elections of the last two progressive presidents, Taft and Wilson
· Defines Wilson’s progressive policies
· Introduces US foreign policy regarding Mexico on the eve of World War I

Lecture 7.2
· Identifies the long-term and short-term causes of World War I
· Explains how the United States moved from neutrality to war

Lecture 7.3
· Reviews the outbreak of the 1918 Influenza pandemic and its impact on the world
· Highlights President Wilson’s attempt to achieve perpetual peace through his Fourteen Points
· Summarizes the peace terms and results of World War I

Lecture 8.1
· Discusses new technology and attitudes towards race and immigration in the 1920s
· Identifies the implementation of Prohibition and its repercussions 
· Summarizes the “Monkey Trial” and its outcomes

Lecture 8.2
· Highlights the women’s suffrage movement in the 1920s and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
· Describes the “New Woman” and the social reactions to flappers
· Investigates the history of Insane Asylums and their impact on women 

10/3/21, 11:41 PM Primary Source Readings: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: HIST-12-22686-2021FA 1/2
Primary Source Readings: San
Francisco Earthquake of 1906
Focus: Local History
In Unit 3, we learned a little bit about social history and the sources that historians use to learn more
about the lives of ordinary people. In this unit, I want to introduce you to local history, which
incorporates many of the approaches to social history.
Historians who focus on local events, people, or places in a specific community may be trying to
create a specific narrative about a narrow topic or use the example as a case study to talk about a
broader subject. For example, you may come across a local history about the Forestiere
Underground Gardens ( that either emphasizes their
legacy in Fresno or uses them as an anecdote to discuss underground caverns, farming, or Sicilian
immigration more generally.
One of the advantages of local history is that the researcher can take an in-depth look at a particular
place and explain its relationship to larger events. Many people have strong ties to their towns,
neighborhoods, community organizations, or churches, and may feel a deeper connection to issues
that define their reality. Local history is an exciting way to get to know a local community and the
events and people that shaped its past. For more information on why local history matters, check out
this page from the University of Toronto on “Why Local History Matters.”
Try Googling your hometown + local history and see if there are any projects or museums that
highlight this field. Fresno State has put together a really cool list of Local History Sources
( for our area.
Topic: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906
On April 18, 1906, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake struck near San Francisco and the subsequent fire
destroyed entire areas and killed approximately 3,000 people. This was one of the worst natural
disasters in the history of the United States. For more information about this event, be sure to watch
the lectures ( for Unit 6!
Photo of crowds on Market Street from The Museum of the City of San Francisco
10/3/21, 11:41 PM Primary Source Readings: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: HIST-12-22686-2021FA 2/2
Primary Source Readings:
You will explore some of the eyewitness accounts compiled by The Museum of the City of San
Francisco. There are three sources for this unit. Remember, you must cite each primary source at
least once if you choose to write Essay 1 on this unit. I have included some additional secondary or
background information to help guide your reading of these primary sources, but they should not be
cited in your essay.
1. A comprehensive account from Louise Herrick Wall entitled, “Heroic San Francisco: A
Woman’s Story of the Pluck and Heroism of the People of the Stricken City,”
( will
introduce us to the experiences of those who witnessed the devastation and aftermath of the
If you would like to know more about Wall, you can review the Biographical Database of
NAWSA Suffragists ( . This is not a
primary source, so you do not need to cite it, but it will provide more background information if
you are interested.
2. Historian Bailey Millard also described his account of the quake and fire in “Thousands Flee
from Blazing City.” (
For more information on Millard, you can check out his biography in the finding aid Bailey
Millard papers, 1893-1939 (
held at the University of Oregon Libraries.
3. From a child’s eyes, Lloyd Head offered his perspective in “One Boy’s Experience: A Member
of the Roosevelt Boys’ Club Writes of his experience during and after the Great
Earthquake.” (
experience) This is an unusual source because children’s history is often more difficult to
construct with primary sources.
Why do you think sources about children’s history might be limited?
Use the “Next” button to navigate to the related assignments:
Join your classmates for a Group Discussion to consider some additional questions
regarding these documents.
Take a short 10 question Primary Source Quiz to test you understanding of the sources.
Submit Essay 1 if you enjoyed these documents or wait for Units 10 if you prefer that topic.
10/3/21, 11:40 PM Primary Source Readings: Immigration in the Nineteenth Century: HIST-12-22686-2021FA 1/3
Primary Source Readings: Immigration
in the Nineteenth Century
Focus: Social History
There are many different ways historians can approach a topic. From the sources they use to the
theories they include to shape their arguments, these methodologies offer a variety of lenses to view
the past. Imagine each approach like a different pair of glasses–they will allow you to see the world
differently based on the prescription and frame you choose! In our primary source readings, I want to
introduce you to some of the ways historians frame history.
Social history is an approach that emerged in response to other types of histories that focus only on
the elite members of society. To provide a richer picture of the human experience, social historians
take a closer look at the lives of ordinary people and the structures in societies that change over time
to meet their needs.
Want to learn more about social history? Check out these free courses from Future Learn
( .
Topic: Immigration
Immigration to the United States in the nineteenth century was hotly debated as some people
advocated for greater restrictions and others embraced the contributions that immigrants made to
American society. Their participation in industrial life and in the cities helped shape the social fabric
of the country. This remains a significant issue in the United States today, so let us take a moment to
look at the historical roots of immigration.
10/3/21, 11:40 PM Primary Source Readings: Immigration in the Nineteenth Century: HIST-12-22686-2021FA 2/3
Photo by Fabian Fauth (
utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=creditCopyText) on Unsplash
Primary Source Readings:
You will examine different perspectives on immigration to the United States in the late nineteenth
century. There are three sources assigned for this unit. Remember, you must cite each primary
source at least once if you choose to write Essay 1 on this topic (due this Sunday by 11:59 p.m.)
1. From the perspective of German immigrants, these excerpts of oral histories highlighted the
personal experiences of “German Immigrants in Texas.”
texas) These accounts were collected as part of the Federal Writers’ Project between 1936-1940
and recorded the early experiences of individuals who immigrated in the nineteenth century.
2. The Turners, as they were known, were members of a club that emphasized German culture,
gymnastics, and liberal politics. In their 1890 “Petition from North-American Turner-Bund,”
american-turner-bund) they addressed members of Congress and outline their reasons for
supporting all immigrants.
At the highpoint of their popularity in the 1890s, they had over 300 clubs across the United
States and 40,000 adult male members. Women and children were also allowed to join.
3. After a lecture delivered by Z. Sidney Sampson on The Immigration Problem in 1892 to the
Brooklyn Ethical Association, attendees participated in a discussion about immigration. Your final
primary source is to read an abstract of the discussion
in which various viewpoints of immigration were presented.
Use the “Next” button to navigate to the related assignments:
Join your classmates for a Group Discussion to consider some additional questions regarding
these documents.
Take a short 10 question Primary Source Quiz to test your understanding of the sources.
Submit Essay 1 if you enjoyed these documents or wait for Units 6 or 10 if you prefer those
Need more information?
Having trouble with where to start? The University of Iowa has some great tips on how to read a
primary source (
identification/primary-source) .
10/3/21, 11:40 PM Primary Source Readings: Immigration in the Nineteenth Century: HIST-12-22686-2021FA 3/3
The FCC Writing and Reading Center
( is here
to help!
Come join me in my office hours Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays 10-11:30 a.m.
( on Zoom (passcode: 212121) to chat about these
Send me an email at [email protected]
(mailto:[email protected]) if you have specific questions on the readings or
mailto:[email protected]
Short-answer IDs (18%–6 points each): Select and identify THREE of the following five terms. Only the first three IDs will be graded should you fail to read these instructions. Write your answers in the space provided below using the following format:
1) Term: 
2) Term: (etc.)
· Zimmermann Note
· Queen Liliuokalani
· Progressivism
· Railroads
· “Monkey Trial” (Scopes)
Essay (30%–30 points): Select ONE of the following two essay prompts and write your answer in the space provided below. Only the first essay will be graded if you fail to read these instructions. You must write in complete sentences. 
Describe the factors that contributed to American expansion in the late nineteenth century. In other words, what else was happening at this time economically, politically, and socially that led the United States to alter its stance on building an empire? How did Americans justify and pursue imperialism in Hawaii, the Caribbean, the Pacific, and East Asia? 
Explain changing attitudes in the United States towards immigration from Reconstruction to the 1920s. How did the government, party machines, and labor unions attempt to control immigrants or provide for their needs? What role did immigrants play in shaping the United States during this period? Provide specific examples to support your claims.

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