How did the COVID19 event change how we view sports and the sports industry?
What were some changes that occurred? What Sports Franchise(s) fared best and why? What organizations suffered the most and why? 150 word minimum, please include your name, date, class, subject, professor’s name and any applicable references. Title information is not considered part of the word count. MLA
Social Issues in Sport
Third Edition
Ronald B. Woods, PhD
University of Tampa
Human Kinetics
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Woods, Ron, 1943 November 6-
Social issues in sport / Ronald B. Woods. — Third edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Sports–Social aspects. 2. Sports–Sociological aspects. I. Title.
GV706.5.W655 2015
ISBN: 978-1-4504-9520-2 (print)
Copyright © 2016, 2011, 2007 by Ronald B. Woods
All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now
known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without
the written permission of the publisher.
The web addresses cited in this text were current as of June 2015, unless otherwise noted.
Permission notices for photos reprinted in this book from other sources can be found on pages xii-xiv.
Acquisitions Editor: Myles Schrag
Developmental and Managing Editor: Amanda S. Ewing
Copyeditor: Tom Tiller
Proofreader: Jim Burns
Indexer: Andrea Hepner
Permissions Manager: Dalene Reeder
Senior Graphic Designer: Keri Evans
Cover Designer: Keith Blomberg
Photograph (cover): Gian Mattia D’Alberto/LaPresse/Icon Sportswire
Photo Asset Manager: Laura Fitch
Photo Production Manager: Jason Allen
Art Manager: Kelly Hendren
Associate Art Manager: Alan L. Wilborn
Illustrations: © Human Kinetics, unless otherwise noted
Printer: Walsworth
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
The paper in this book was manufactured using responsible forestry methods.
Human Kinetics
United States: Human Kinetics
P.O. Box 5076
Champaign, IL 61825-5076
e-mail: [email protected]
Canada: Human Kinetics
475 Devonshire Road Unit 100
Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5
800-465-7301 (in Canada only)
e-mail: [email protected]
Europe: Human Kinetics
107 Bradford Road
Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom
+44 (0) 113 255 5665
e-mail: [email protected]
Australia: Human Kinetics
57A Price Avenue
Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062
08 8372 0999
e-mail: [email protected]
New Zealand: Human Kinetics
P.O. Box 80
Mitcham Shopping Centre, South Australia 5062
0800 222 062
e-mail: [email protected]
Intended Audience
Text Organization
Updates in the Third Edition
Learning Tools
Instructor Resources
Closing Comments
Part I: Studying Sport in Society
Chapter 1: What Is Sport and Why Do We Study It?
Sport Through the Ages
Definition of Sport
Study of Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 2: How Do We Study Sport?
Research Methods
Social Theories
Current Status of Sport Sociology
Chapter Summary
Part II: Scope and Effect of Sport on Society
Chapter 3: Participants Versus Spectators
Sport Participants
Factors Affecting Sport Participation
Trends in Sport Participation
Sport Spectators
Trends in Spectator Sports
Marketing to Participants and Spectators
Chapter Summary
Chapter 4: Business of Sport
Sport and the Economy
Ownership in Professional Sport
Sport as Monopoly
Collegiate Sport as Moneymaker
Recreational Sport as a Business
Chapter Summary
Chapter 5: Media and Sport
Evolution of Sport Media
Interplay of Sport and Media
How Sport Affects the Media
Ideology of Sport Through the Media
Careers in Sport Media
Chapter Summary
Part III: Sport as an Institution
Chapter 6: Youth Sport
History of Youth Sport
Sponsors of Youth Sport
Privatization of Youth Sport
Current Status of Youth Sport
Organized Youth Sport
Why Kids Participate—and Stop Participating—in Sport
Burnout in Youth Sport
Reforms for Youth Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 7: Coaching Sport
Influence of Coaches
Status of Coaching
Coaching at Different Levels of Sport
Coaching Personality
Challenges for the Future of Coaching
Chapter Summary
: Interscholastic and Intercollegiate Sport
Interscholastic Sport
Collegiate Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 9: International Sport
Globalization of Modern Sport
U.S. Influence on World Sport
Olympic Games
Media Effects on the Globalization of Sport
Nationalism Versus Economics
Athletes and Coaches as Migrant Workers
Using Sport for Better World Understanding
Chapter Summary
Chapter 10: Olympic Movement
History of the Olympics
Effect of the Olympic Games
Nationalism and the Olympic Movement
United States Olympic Committee
Athlete Development
Chapter Summary
Part IV: Sport and Culture
Chapter 11: Sporting Behavior
Sporting Behavior at Different Levels of Sport
Youth Attitudes
Development of Moral Values
Moral Values Applied to Sport
Moral Values Taught Through Sport
Strategies for Good Sporting Behavior
Chapter Summary
Chapter 12: Race, Ethnicity, and Sport
Classifications of Race and Ethnicity
Sport Participation Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Sport and Promoting Equality
Minorities as Sport Leaders
Chapter Summary
Chapter 13: Women and Sport
Historical Role of Women
Women and Sport Before Title IX
Title IX
Women and Sport After Title IX
Social Issues in Women’s Sport
Global Status of Women in Sport
Barriers for Women in Sport
Media Coverage of Women’s Sport
Golden Age of Sport Reborn
Chapter Summary
Chapter 14: Social Class and Sport
Social Class
Social Class and Sport Activity
Control of Amateur and Professional Sport
Class Mobility in Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 15: Special Populations and Sport
Americans with Disabilities Act
American Association of People with Disabilities
Sport Participation for Athletes With a Physical Disability
Sport Participation for Athletes With a Mental Disability
Sport Participation for Older Athletes
Issues for Special Populations in Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 16: Religion and Sport
Religion and Sport in History
Christian Influence on Sport
Sport and Religions Other Than Christianity
Use of Religion in Sport by Athletes
Use of Sport by Athletes to Promote Religious Beliefs
Use of Religion by Coaches, Organizations, and Owners
Organizations Using Sport to Promote Religion
Using Sport to Promote Christian Colleges and Secondary Schools
Conflict Between Sport and Religion
Chapter Summary
Chapter 17: Politics and Sport
Government Promotion of Physical Activity and Health
Government in Sport
Government Promotion of Identity and Unity Among Citizens
Nationalism and Sport
Sport and the Promotion of Social Values
Politics Within Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 18: Development Through Sport
Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity
Benefits of Sport at Various Ages
Development Programs for Children and Youth
International Outreach Through Sport
Peace Initiatives Through Sport
Potential Funding Sources for Sport Development Programs
Chapter Summary
Chapter 19: Violence and Rule Breaking in Sport
Rule Breaking
Emotion and Sport
Aggression and Sport
Violence in Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 20: Deviance and Sport
Performance Enhancement Through Drugs
Eating Disorders in Sport
Hazing in Sport
Gambling and Sport
Chapter Summary
Chapter 21: Future Trends in Sport
Social Trends
Conflict Between Performance Sport and Participation Sport
Effects of Social Changes
Effects of Spectatorship
Effects of Technology
Effects of the Electronic Media
Will Sport Change?
Who Will Lead the Way?
Who Will Fight for Change?
Chapter Summary
About the Author
This book examines contemporary sport both factually and critically, particularly in the
United States. As part of this project, the book situates the modern sport world in the context
of the historical development of sport. As you will see, sport participation and spectatorship
in the United States have changed considerably and now lean toward a corporate model.
In the past 50 years, major changes in U.S. society have spilled over into the world of sport.
Racial barriers have given way to dominance by African Americans in basketball and football,
and Latinos now account for a third of Major League Baseball players. Women and girls also
participate more in sport and advocate for equal opportunities as both participants and
spectators. In addition, the Special Olympics and the Paralympic Games have become major
sport events for people with intellectual or physical disability. Finally, consumer sport now
accommodates a surging population of older adults who look to sport to enhance their
personal fitness, quality of life, and social interaction. Each of these changes promotes new
sport outlooks and strategies and offers hope for the continued expansion of sport for every
At the same time, sport sociology has advanced as a science and created more rigorous and
insightful methods of studying sport. The sociology of sport is explored in plentiful university
courses, and relevant issues are studied by hundreds of professors and researchers. For its part,
this book presents the controversies and the status of sport in a sociological context without
dwelling on theoretical constructs. More specifically, the text provides a look at sport by a
longtime sport participant, observer, fan, teacher, coach, administrator, and critic who has
tried to maintain a balanced approach to sport.
Intended Audience
This book is intended for people who are looking at sport objectively for the first time. It can
help you understand sport, its place in society, and possible changes that may be needed if
sport is to maintain a positive future. I hope you will become better acquainted with both the
historical and the current roles of sport in society. Regardless of your major course of study, if
you are a sport participant or fan, you will find the information illuminating—and in some
cases surprising.
As you come to understand more about the sport world and its interaction with society at
large, you will be better equipped to decide what role sport plays in your life and in the life of
your family. Whether you are a competitive athlete, an enthusiastic participant, or a spectator,
this book can help you enjoy sport more, appreciate the challenges faced by sport, and better
evaluate decisions made by sport leaders. Sport can either help unify or help divide society,
and it stands a better chance of being beneficial if more people understand both its value and
its limitations.
Although this book is based on research and reflects various social theories, it was not written
for academic colleagues, and it does not break new theoretical ground. Rather, it is intended
to encourage students to delve more deeply into the issues and contradictions that
characterize what for many of us can be a love–hate affair with sport.
Text Organization
Part I of the book presents a framework for studying sport in society. More specifically,
chapter 1 defines terms and establishes the purpose and importance of sport study. It also
addresses the overall field of sport science and how sport research contributes to knowledge
within sport.
Chapter 2 presents sociological methods for studying sport in order to help you understand
how knowledge is gathered and analyzed. It describes social theories and the ways in which
these theories aid the study of sport. To help you apply these theories, this edition of the
book includes sidebars that ask you to analyze a topic from the perspective of one of the social
theories presented. These sidebars enhance your understanding of the social theories and
pique your interest in applying them to current topics in sport.
Part II examines the scope of modern sport and how it affects society. For example, chapter 3
clarifies the parallels and differences between sport participants and sport spectators. It also
compares growth trends in various sports and distinguishes people who participate in
recreational sport from those who are devoted to high-performance sport. One critical aspect
of this work involves reviewing current research reports and analyzing recent trends in the
popularity of various sport and fitness activities.
Chapter 4 addresses the business side of sport at the professional and collegiate levels and
discusses the issues involved in spending public funds for private gain. It also considers how
finances affect athletes, coaches, owners, and participants, both individually and collectively.
These discussions help you appreciate the huge economic investments made in sport and the
influence of money on sport policies and programs.
Chapter 5 outlines the powerful symbiotic relationship between media and sport. It
acknowledges the influence of sport media personalities and journalism and the continuing
challenges of including minorities and females more often in sport media. This chapter also
recognizes the dramatic shift from print media to electronic media, thanks to technology
undreamed of just a generation ago, and its effect on how we consume both sport itself and
news about sport.
Part III looks at sport as an institution and how it functions in relation to other institutions,
such as colleges and the Olympics. More specifically, chapter 6 examines youth sport outside
of the school setting, which has largely become an adult-organized activity for kids that
permeates every community. Next, chapter 7 addresses coaching, a topic that appeared
elsewhere in earlier editions of the book but has been moved to this section because coaching
is such a key determinant of success for teams at various levels. Therefore, it makes sense to
integrate the study of coaching with the study of the institutions of youth, high school, and
college sport.
Chapter 8 addresses interscholastic and intercollegiate sport. Interscholastic teams continue
to grow and prosper, but they also face the challenges of integrating opportunities for girls in
accordance with Title IX and meeting the constant pressure to secure funding. Collegiate
teams also struggle to find their way amid the economic pressure to support programs for a
relatively few elite athletes who may or may not be comfortable in the academic setting.
Chapter 9 broadens the scope to consider the globalization of sport, which reflects our
increasingly connected world. On one hand, international competition has increased as
American sports have been exported around the world; meanwhile, soccer has finally begun
to take hold in North America. Chapter 10 focuses on the particular international sport
phenomenon known as the Olympic movement, which has propelled certain sports to
international prominence and taken on an originally unintended economic and political
significance. In particular, the inclusion of professional athletes has changed the nature of the
Olympic Games and increased attention in countries around the world on developing elite
athletes who can compete for gold medals.
Part IV focuses on the interaction between culture and sport and lays out the significance of
social issues in the sport world, including good sporting behavior (chapter 11), race and
ethnicity (chapter 12), women (chapter 13), and social class (chapter 14). The changing role
of women and African Americans in society has revolutionized sport, and ethnicity and social
class continue to be powerful factors in who plays and watches sports overall and in particular
Chapter 15 examines the relationship of sport to other particular populations, including those
who are aging and those who have a physical or cognitive disability. In particular, the chapter
recognizes the effects of major societal changes regarding these populations in the past 25
years. For instance, as baby boomers have aged and life expectancy has increased, population
demographics have changed, and more of the population consists of older adults who view
sport both as a form of recreation and as a tool for living more healthily. At the same time,
since the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, sport opportunities have
been greatly expanded for people with a physical or cognitive disability.
As has been the case for centuries, sport also interacts with religion (chapter 16) and politics
(chapter 17). Institutions and individuals in both arenas have affected the growth of sport and
used sport to their advantage. Athletes use religion in their sport, and religious organizations
use sport to promote their purposes. Governments use sport to promote identity, unity, social
values, and nationalism. And as citizens, we rely on government to provide reasonable
regulation of sport in order to help us stay safe, in good health, and free from exploitation by
unscrupulous promoters of entertainment sport.
Chapter 18 focuses on the use of sport to combat perplexing challenges faced by societies,
particularly those characterized by strong socioeconomic barriers. For example, the chapter
explores the increasing worldwide emphasis on using sport for the development of peace and
understanding among people of various countries. It also examines the use of youth sport
programs to help at-risk youngsters with academics, discipline issues, moral development,
socialization, and living in a law-abiding manner.
Chapter 19 is the first of two chapters in this edition devoted to deviant behavior. This
chapter looks at rule breaking by athletes at various levels of sport. It also examines violence
both on and off the field. More specifically, it addresses growing concerns about concussions
and debilitating injuries in collision-type sports, as well as off-field violence perpetrated by
professional athletes—a timely topic that deserves serious attention.
Chapter 20 explores deviant behaviors such as eating disorders, hazing practices, and sport
wagering with an eye toward current trends, education, and the development of strategies and
regulations to prevent or minimize the negative effects of these practices. Of course, deviant
behavior also includes the use of performance enhancers and doping, which can create
questions about whether a given performance was achieved with the help of an illegal aid.
Finally, chapter 21 anticipates future sport trends in North America, where performance
sport (played by professionals) continues to compete with participation sport (played by
amateurs). In addition, many youth have moved toward extreme sports that suit their needs
better than traditional, adult-organized sports do. Older adults, on the other hand, look to
sport to enhance their chances for a longer life of higher quality. More broadly, U.S. sport
continues to face issues related to finances, opportunities for women, growing minority
populations, and access to sport for families of all income levels. Meanwhile, the delivery of
sport events and programs continues to be influenced by the fact that spectators increasingly
rely on electronic implements in their consumption of sport.
Updates in the Third Edition
This new edition features updated statistics that allow us to freshly analyze sport trends
related to topics such as participation, popularity, gender, race, and class. Similarly, current
information is used to address the business side of sport, particularly in entertainment or
spectator sports. In addition, the discussion of media and sport has been updated to consider
the dramatic effects of the electronic media.
This edition also features updated sidebars that reflect key changes in the world of sport over
the past five years. These sidebars feature current athletes, trends, and experts in order to
bring alive the topics considered in each chapter. In addition, this edition features a new type
of sidebar—Applying Social Theory—to help readers grasp the essentials of each theory and
apply it to a current issue in sport.
As mentioned earlier, the chapter on coaching has been moved to part III to better integrate
it with the chapters on youth, high school, and college sport. Indeed, the success or failure of
an athletic team at any level can invariably be traced in large part to the philosophy, training,
and skill of the coach. Therefore, it is encouraging to see that the past 10 years have brought
significant progress in certification processes and continuing education for coaches; even so,
however, standards are still lacking at most levels of sport.
Learning Tools
To aid learning, each chapter begins with a list of key student outcomes and ends with a
summary of the chapter’s main topics. In addition, key terms are highlighted in boldface and
defined in a glossary for easy reference. Throughout the text, various types of sidebar
highlight diverse aspects of sport:
“In the Arena With . . . ” sidebars highlight key players in sociological change in sport.
“Pop Culture” sidebars discuss current trends in film, books, magazines, and other media
that highlight sociological issues in sport.
“Expert’s View” sidebars show how experts in sport sociology interpret sport issues; they
also raise discussion points for students.
“Activity Time-Out” sidebars give students the opportunity to classify information,
engage in friendly debate, and obtain crucial information.
“Applying Social Theory” sidebars ask students to analyze a particular topic from the
perspective of one of the six social theories described in chapter 2.
Instructor Resources
Several instructor resources are available to help you use this text in your class. The instructor
guide has a sample syllabus and a list of supplemental resources. The test package provides
210 questions in multiple-choice and essay format. The chapter quizzes provides 10 questions
per chapter to test students’ knowledge of the most important chapter concepts. The
Microsoft PowerPoint presentation package has 455 slides outlining the text in a lecture-
friendly format. All of these resources are available at
Closing Comments
I have spent more than 40 years studying sport and applying that knowledge as a professor,
coach, and administrator. I spent nearly 20 of those years on a college campus. Later, I
worked in various administrative roles for the United States Tennis Association and spent 8
years on the coaching committee for the United States Olympic Committee, which took on
the challenge of improving coaching in all U.S. sports.
For the past 10 years, I have taught a course on sport and society at the University of Tampa.
Most of the material in this edition has been vetted by current or former students, who
invariably end the semester with a much different understanding of U.S. sport from the
opinions they had at the beginning of the course.
I have also been fortunate enough to experience extensive international travel (most recently
to China) and in the process have learned a great deal about sport in other countries. These
experiences have given me a unique perspective on sport. It is my hope that you will enjoy
this perspective while also understanding where it is limited.
I express warm thanks to the hundreds of students who have sparked my interest in
evaluating the information available on the sociology of sport. They have challenged me to
make the information relevant to today’s world of sport. In particular, students at the
University of Tampa have provided consistent feedback and creative ideas and have clearly
articulated their interest in certain topics. My interactions with these students have taught me
a great deal about their perceptions of American sport and physical activity; these interactions
have also given me the opportunity to share with students my own career and life experiences.
Through this sharing process, we have all realized that sport plays a critical role in our lives
and in our society, and we hope that sport will similarly entertain future generations of
participants, performers, and consumers of sport and physical activity.
I’m indebted to Rainer Martens, who challenged me to accept this project and showed
confidence in me to produce a worthwhile product. Likewise, I appreciate the work of Myles
Schrag, acquisitions editor, for his guidance in the conception and shaping of the manuscript.
Later in the process, developmental editor Amanda Ewing offered insightful advice, helped
keep me on target, and made terrific suggestions for revision for this third edition. Both
Myles and Amanda have been loyal partners from the original conception of this work and
throughout each new edition of it.
I also acknowledge the assistance and friendship of Dr. Tian Ye and Dr. Tian Hui of Beijing,
China, who invited me to their country to speak to the China Institute of Sport Science and
other distinguished groups in their country. Their hospitality and keen interest in American
sport eventually led to their translating this text into Chinese to be used in their universities.
Finally, my wife, Kathy, has been a tireless supporter throughout the project and has
encouraged me every step of the way. Without her interest, patience, and personal
commitment to sport, it would have been a difficult undertaking.
Part I
Studying Sport in Society
These opening chapters set the stage for studying sport from a sociological perspective by
pointing out the integral relationship between sport and society in North America. The first
chapter defines key words such as play, game, sport, and work in terms of purpose,
organization, and complexity. As sport moves from participation sport (played by amateurs) to
high-performance sport (played by professional athletes), it also moves away from recreation or
leisure-play activities and takes on the characteristics of work.
Chapter 1 examines why people study sport and reviews the sport sciences that enable us to
develop the scientific knowledge on which coaching and training are based. Chapter 2
presents typical methods of studying sport. It defines several social theories and gives
examples of how they might apply to sport research and interpretation. These social theories,
referred to throughout the book, provide a framework for understanding different points of
view relevant to the specific topics of each chapter. Therefore, it is critical that you
understand these theories so that you can respond effectively to their application in later
Chapter 2 also describes the emerging field of sport sociology. Whereas sport psychology
tends to focus on one individual, sport sociology explores people in groups and how they
interact with and affect one another in relation to sport. The chapter also provides
information about sociological tools for learning more.
Chapter 1
What Is Sport and Why Do We Study It?
Karin Lau/
Student Outcomes
After reading this chapter, you will know the following:
The definition of sport
The sport pyramid
Why you should study sport
The subdisciplines of sport science
Like many college students, you may feel that sport plays a significant role in your life.
Perhaps you even chose your university partly on the basis of its athletic success. In fact, in
the United States, many of us have heard of certain colleges simply because of their prowess
in athletics. Though sport plays a relatively minor role in an institution’s mission and
purpose, college sport teams typically enhance school spirit and serve as a focus of campus
social life.
However, if college sport merely produces more spectators—more people who watch other
people participating in sport—we might ask whether they really benefit students. More to the
point, perhaps the question should be this: How physically active are students in both sport
and other activities that contribute to their overall health and well-being?
On Thursday, April 15, 1954, I realized that baseball was important in the world. On that
day, Baltimore got its own Major League Baseball team, the Orioles, and opened the brand-
spanking-new Memorial Stadium. The formation of the Orioles, spawned from the lowly St.
Louis Browns franchise, marked the entry of my home city into the big leagues. Although I
was just a kid, I knew that day was special because city hall closed for half the day, most
businesses shut down, and, best of all, schools were closed so that everyone could enjoy the
citywide parade.
In fact, Baltimore was about to embark on its golden age of sport, which would coincide with
my childhood. At first, we rooted for moderately talented sport teams, but soon Hall of
Famer Brooks Robinson led the Orioles and the magical arm of Hall of Famer Johnny Unitas
guided our football team, the Colts. Having these two superstars in the same city was like
having a quarterback such as Peyton Manning or Tom Brady along with an infielder such as
Derek Jeter or Evan Longoria as your football and baseball heroes. I knew right then that I
was falling in love with sport.
You may have a similar childhood story of your own introduction to sport. Regardless of the
details, once we’re hooked, many of us never quite let go of our interest in and devotion to
our favorite sports and heroes. In fact, the word fan derives from fanatic—and that’s just what
many of us have been and continue to be. Furthermore, if you’re like me, studying sport is fun
and can also help you expand your understanding of the place that sport holds both in North
America and in the world. To get a quick sense of this significance, imagine that all sports
were banned, as indeed some have been in certain civilizations. Our lives would change,
immediately and dramatically, in terms of how we invest our discretionary time, our money,
and our emotions.
This scenario is jarring because sport affects our lives …

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.