The content of this work is based upon your lists from Task 2A work.
PART 1: Make one more list of cultural groups into which you think the media might categorize you based upon your consumer behavior (both products and media content). For example, if you wear sweat pants, Nike shoes and a t-shirt, would that indicate that you are an athlete? If you watch a lot of football (because another member of your family controls the TV) you would still put sports fan on your culture list list because media do not know you watched because of someone else. Or, maybe your food list indicates you are a vegetarian (whether you are or not) because you happened to NOT eat meat that day? Does your list identify you as feminine/female? Masculine/male? Both? Are you religious? Do you love cats? These are just examples of how to evaluate your lists.
PART 2: Discuss whether you believe your consumption (media and products) and your cultural-consumption profile is consistent with your self-perception (who you think you are).
PART 3: Review your product consumption list. Are their items you can cross off because you don’t really need them (list them)? Are you over consuming? Do you find you purchase more food than you can eat (throwing away food that’s been in the fridge too long). Do you find your closets are stuffed or that you have too much stuff?
PART 4: Review your media consumption. How much of your media consumption time is active and purposeful. And how much is mindless and a waste? What is the ratio of screen time (tv, videos, computer, gaming) to non-screen time in your life?
PART 5: Write a reflection on your findings and your experience actively/consciously documenting your consumption.
Some (but not all) questions to think about:
If someone never met you and only had a look at your lists, what would they presume about you based upon your consumption?
Do you find you have brand loyalty?- if so why?
Do you want to consume more or less of certain types of media?
Do you think your media consumption has changed in the pandemic?
Do you rely more on media now than before quarantine?
Do you use digital media to get your news or to escape?
Do you use some products because you were raised using those products?
Are there any products or media you consume that you would define as specific to a culture you belong to?
Have you ever utilized an app or other strategy to limit your screen time?
Is there anyone you would NOT like to have see your list and for what reason? What would you change if your boss, guardian, or partner was to see your list?
If you could do the assignment again what practices would you try to change?
DAY/DATE MEDIUM CONTENT AMOUNT OF TIME
IPAD LISTEN TO
TED RADIO HOUR
BOOK THE ART OF
PLAYSTATION GAMES: FIFA 2-3 HOUR
SOCIAL MEDIA INSTAGRAM:
PRODUCT/BRAND WHY DO YOU USE THIS
IS THIS PRODUCT
NECESSARY? WHY OR
MAKE MY TEETH WHITER
Yes it is necessary to
maintain good health
(HONEY OAT ALMONDS)
IT IS HEALTHY AS WELL IT
TASTES GOOD AS WELL
Yes because i like it and also
it can can be replaced with
IT HELPS TO PREVENT MY
SKIN FROM BECOMING
Yes because it helps to
prevent my skin from harming
IT IS HEALTHY AS WELL AS
Yes because it helps to keep
my body healthy
USUALLY MAKES MY
WHOLE DAY SCHEDULE
ON IT AS WELL AS
SETTING REMINDERS FOR
MEETING ON IT.
Yes because it helps to make
my day more organized
TO WATCH NEWS
EVERYDAY AND TO LEARN
ABOUT THE SITUATION
WHICH IS GOING AROUND
THE WHOLE WORLD
No, because you can still
read it online.
REVISIT THIS PAGE OFTEN: CONTENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITH NOTICE.
THIS IS A MEDIA CLASS SO WE WILL BE COVERING MEDIA
CONTENT/CURRENT-EVENTS IN REAL TIME.
MODULE 1 DIGITAL MEDIA AND CONVERGENCE
TOPIC 1— INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE MEDIA AND MASS COMMUNICATION
Communication, in its simplest form, can be defined as shared meaning.
Using an old-fashioned communication model, where a SOURCE sends a
MESSAGE to a RECEIVER, we can define several different kinds of
SOURCE ———-> MESSAGE——– > RECEIVER
ONE OR A
FACE, with or
ONE OR A
But can also
AS MANY AS
MASS COMMUNICATION: A CRITICAL APPROACH
I love media studies! I feel this area of study can and will help you in myriad other
endeavors and academic pursuits as media intersects with every other discipline. Media
technology is an ubiquitous presence in our lives, it’s everywhere all the time! To name
just a few media sources: radio, television, film, newspapers, magazines, smartphones,
computers, the Internet, computer and video games, gps, satellites, phones and other
smart devices, etc.
We must interrogate these systems on a deeper level to develop a critical lens.
Attaining a deeper understanding of how these industries and tools work will allow us to
engage, produce and consume more thoughtfully and intentionally. Now more than ever,
due to the pandemic, we see how these tools-and an understanding of these tools- is
necessary to keep in contact with friends and family, stay informed, work etc.
Study after study claim that Americans consume a lot of media. According to
STATISTA.com, (Daily media consumption in the U.S. 2020, by format, published by
Amy Watson, Jun 17, 2020) “In terms of average time spent each day, TV is the
second most used form of media in the United States, with adults spending 229
minutes (almost four hours) watching television on a daily basis according to a study
undertaken in April 2020. Digital formats took up the majority of U.S. adults’ daily
media consumption time, while for newspapers and magazines the average time
spent was just nine and eight minutes respectively.
If it is true (and it is) that we spend more time- consuming media than doing
ANYTHING ELSE in our lives (eating, sleeping, working, getting exercise, making love,
spending time with our families, getting educated, exercising, etc.), then why is it we are
not better educated about our media interactions/consumption? Why aren’t we taught
about media in school? We begin consuming media as babies, so by the time we start
kindergarten or first grade, we’ve already been listening and watching our entire lives.
So why aren’t we taught in first grade how media work and how we can protect
ourselves as much as possible from their negative influence? Why aren’t we taught to
discriminate between quality media or accurate information from destructive messages
and lies? Or why aren’t we taught how to use our influence as audience members to
challenge the media to better serve us or provide us with higher quality product or more
balanced and fair coverage?
How could this much interaction with media NOT have consequences and
effects? Of course, it does. And the stakes are very high. Media provide us with
news and information. Media influence who we elect as our political leaders. Media
spotlights some while ignoring others. Media perpetuate and destroy stereotypes,
power structures and cultural systems. Media represent us to the rest of the world.
Media provide us with ways to define ourselves. The better media literate we are,
the more power we have in working WITH media to make the world a better place.
Interrogating systems that we give the lion’s-share of our time to is an exercise in
So let’s get started.
WHAT IS MEDIA LITERACY?
(Lots of different definitions, here are a few you need to know):
“Media Literacy: to develop an informed and critical understanding of the nature of mass
media, the techniques used by them, and the impact of these techniques.” – Dr. John
“Media literacy is a set of perspectives that we actively use to expose ourselves to the
mass media to interpret the meaning of the messages we encounter.” – W. James Potter
“The purpose of media literacy education is to help individuals of all ages develop the
habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective
communicators and active citizens in today’s world.” – National Association for Media
Literacy Education (NAMLE)
So in order to be media literate MEDIA EDUCATION FOUNDATION (MEF), the
non-profit media literacy organization’s, illustrates how the process of effective
media analysis is based on the following concepts:
1. All media messages are “constructed” no matter how simple they seem.
2. Each medium has different characteristics, strengths, and a unique “language” of
3. Media messages always contain embedded values and points of view.
4. All media messages contain embedded values and points-of-view. There is no such
thing as neutral (according to whose definition?)
5. People use their individual skills, beliefs and experiences to construct their own
meanings from media messages.
6. Media and media messages can influence beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, and
the democratic process.
Most of us hardly give our media interactions a second thought. We are so immersed in
our mediated world that the metaphorical question that is often used to describe our
contemporary relationship with media is
“does a fish know it is wet?” Media are mostly invisible to us—until they don’t work or
we lose access to them (when your computer crashes, when you lose your smart
phone, when a natural disaster knocks out electricity and connectivity) or if you are
simply out of range (hard to believe there are still areas on the planet that aren’t
covered.) When our connection to media is severed, you often hear people describe
their experience as feeling “lost”, or when referring to their broken computers/phones
“My life is in there.” This is why media literacy—the understanding of how media
function and affect society is important. Here are a list of 10 reasons why media literacy
is important (according to the Media Education Foundation MEF).
So how do we begin analyzing how we interact with media, how
media function and how we can become more media literate? The easiest
way to understand how a process works, is to deconstruct it into its
Referring to our communication model, we will begin by looking at the source:
SOURCE ———-> MESSAGE——– > RECEIVER
There is often confusion (much of the time it is instigated by media
corporations) that the Constitution protects the media so they can say/do
whatever they want. Not true. The Constitution DOES protect the Press in
the First Amendment which reads, “Congress shall make no law respecting
an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of
grievances.” The reason our country’s founders wanted to protect the
Press was because of the ideal of the Press acting as a Fourth Estate of
the government. The U.S. has three branches of the government
(executive—the President, legislative—the Congress, and judicial—The
Supreme Court) that act together as checks and balances (the idea that no
one entity can control everything (no more King).
The PRESS were/are supposed to act as a 4th Branch of the
government: providing the population with information so they can
participate in our democracy from a place of knowledge and understanding.
The Press are supposed to be THE WATCHDOG of the government. Media
are supposed to be on our side instead of on the side of corporations or
politicians or systems of power and money.
One of the most important issues regarding media (requiring regulation of
media) revolves around media ownership. Our country has a deep history of
not liking monopolies, so we have passed rules (that have been relaxed over
the years) regarding how many media outlets companies may own. When
media ownership is merged into the hands of a smaller and smaller number of
companies, it is called CONCENTRATION OF OWNERSHIP. And, when
companies that own media aren’t media companies per se, it is called MEDIA
CONGLOMERATION. When a single media corporation (or just a few) gain all
of the control. It becomes a big problem: For democracy, for the public, for the
world. Even the media, themselves, present content that is reflective of the
dangers of concentration of ownership and media conglomeration.
Here is an old and new example of the U.S government’s interaction with
● If you have taken media history courses, you may know about the
landmark case United states v. Paramount Pictures inc. This was a
case that ended the Hollywood studio system and changed how
movies were made, exhibited and distributed. The studios owned the
theaters and the movies and the rights of distribution. This is an
example of VERTICAL INTEGRATION as studios owned and
controlled the entire supply chain for films and their distribution.
● On December 9, 2020 the FTC sued Facebook for illegal
monopolization of the social networking. This is an issue of
HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION, as the company owns Facebook and
had purchased Instagram which operates at the same level in the
Review the images below to get a sense of how few companies now own media
compared to the numbers of the past AND how many media owners are giant
conglomerates that own A LOT of other things. Review several media company
holdings at FREEPRESS.NET. There are a lot of these ownership charts (GOOGLE:
media ownership). It should be noted that all of the owners are white men (exception:
Sony, a Japanese company, has a President who is Japanese and a man).
PLEASE FOLLOW THIS LINK to see an infographic containing the ownership of “The
Big 6” AND THE SECOND LINK to show consolidation over time
Big 6 Ownership
A lot of students sigh and feel helpless against such a powerful, rich,
entrenched system (media in the USA). In fact, part of the cultural story we tell
ourselves is that the media are too powerful to change. That story is wrong and
only serves those who gain or maintain power from that story.
But remember: Media “they” can’t engage you, define you and reflect you if
you do not cooperate. We just need to see the media NOT as a separate
“mediating” entity that is simply the go-between us and corporations/institutions that
are simply delivering content to us. Rather, the media themselves ARE the
corporations and institutions who are selling products to us (like laundry
soap, make-up and politicians) and culture to us (what it is to be happy,
successful, a “real man”, an “attractive woman”, who and what is or isn’t
This brings us back to the fact that these “titans of industry” are almost all
from the same demographic. This is important to note as these older, white, cis,
straight, men’s values and biases affect the media we consume and produce. This
goes beyond mass media. In the tech industry, an industry also dominated by white
men, we see power structures and bias replicated in their output. There is
extensive research being conducted on the bias that is literally encoded into our
software by these men. Many times, we think of technology as objective or apart
from human error. It is shown that the bias of those in the tech industry is
inextricable from the software they produce (If you are interested in this topic- pick
up the book Algorithms of Oppression by Safiya Umoja Noble).
Check out PBS’s MEDIA GIANTS ownership listing. And here are other versions of
media ownership illustrated:
MODULE 1 DIGITAL MEDIA AND CONVERGENCE
TOPIC 2— ONLINE, INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA
The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence Digital Gaming and the
There seems to be a fascination with the future and technology.
WATCH THE FUTURE IS NOW (1955 prediction of the future)
Industry wants us to like technology and see it as positive or as an opportunity. But
the reality of technology isn’t so utopian. What happens when it doesn’t work (ask
anyone who has lost or broken their phone, lost wifi connection, destroyed a
computer hard drive without backing it up). And what happens if only some of the
population have access (digital divide?) What happens when big data is used as
another way to marginalize and discriminate against groups that are already
subordinated and vulnerable?
WATCH AT&T’s VISION OF THE FUTURE.
Notice what they got right in their predictions (smart devices, gaming, video
calling) but also what they got wrong (AT&T, the PHONE company didn’t know we
would have cell phones?)
WATCH the first 10 minutes of FRONTLINE’S: Digital nation
WATCH Adam Ruins Everything (Adam Ruins Facebook)
Social media platforms are now being scrutinized for “allowing” false information to
perpetuate ideas that lead to actions. The Russians have been blamed for creating
separatism and influencing American campaigns via Facebook. A study of 200 million
posts determined that over half of posts advocating re-opening from the Corona virus
were posted by bots. (Literally: Robots were dominating the conversations.) President
Trump called out Twitter for providing a correction to one of his Tweets.
What happens, then, when information is used against us?
In addition to social media, consider BIG DATA. It is (and will be) presented to us as
an allowable infringement of our privacy (to stop crime or whatever), but how can it
be used against us and normalized by authorities?
WATCH: THE GOOD FIGHT ANIMATION: RUSSIAN TROLL CHANGE
Consider artificial intelligence. Will it help us and make life better? Or will it take our
jobs and make life worse?
Check out this infographic about AI
Watch the Innovation of Loneliness
WATCH: THIS AD (try to guess what it is about before the end, notice the irony of
the message to the product)
So we all know that the Internet never forgets (once it is out there, you can’t fully
erase it or retract it). And that everything we do online is being tracked and
recorded, etc. Just recently the comedian Johnathan Firstman, who became famous
in 2020 for his “impressions” series on Instagram, was called out for racist jokes he
Social media is also being used more than ever to bring people together to share
interests, concerns and to organize political activism. My topic of study in graduate
school was about the marginalization and erasure of sex workers by social media
networks. Pop into my office hours if you’d like to know more about my research or
how you can help!
READ: The Pew Research Center’s Social media continue to be important political
outlets for Black Americans
Culture can be influenced by all kinds of online content (beyond social media). Even
gaming presents perspectives.
WATCH: Women and people of color discuss bullying and harrassment they experience while online
gaming on a GOOD MORNING AMERICA REPORT.
MODULE 2 BUSINESS OF MEDIA AND CULTURAL EFFECTS
TOPIC 3— COMMERCIAL CULTURE AND ADVERTISING
ADVERTISING AND COMMERCIAL CULTURE PUBLIC RELATIONS AND FRAMING THE
DISCUSSION AND NOTES:
Referring to our communication model, we will continue to look at media as the
source, but now we will turn our attention to people and culture:
SOURCE———-> MESSAGE ——–> RECEIVER
We. Are. The. Receivers.
What makes our U.S. media system unique is that IT BELONGS TO THE
PEOPLE. The airwaves belong to the citizens of the United States of
America—NOT the government, NOT private companies, but THE PEOPLE.
We decided this a long time ago after WW1 when our radios were taken
from us by the government during war time. Other countries’ media systems
emerged as authoritative (China) or paternalistic (ENGLAND), but the United
States (because of the power of the people in our democracy) demanded that the
media system be public.
It all revolved around the notion that THE ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM was “SCARCE” or limited and, therefore so valuable that it must be
owned by everyone. Communications use a very small portion of the overall
spectrum (check out this chart, for more information: U.S. Radio Frequency
MEDIA COMPANIES WERE TO SUPPOSE TO “TAKE CARE OF” OR ACT AS “PUBLIC TRUSTEES” OF THE AIRWAVES (FOR THE PEOPLE.) THEY ARE LICENSED
TO USE OUR AIRWAVES AND THEY ARE ALOUD (OBVISOUSLY) TO MAKE A PROFIT. BUT THEY ARE SUPPOSE TO GIVE SOMETHING BACK TO THE PEOPLE
FOR THE PRIVILEGE OF MAKING ALL THAT MONEY WITH OUR AIRWAVES: MEDIA OWNERS MUST SERVE THE PUBLIC INTEREST, CONVENIENCE OR
This PICON requirement was mentioned over 100 times in the 1934
Communications Act (it wasn’t simply an empty promise). We use to police
our spectrum more strongly than we do now. But the airwaves are still
owned by the public and, as long as we keep it that way, the public will
have power and sway with what happens to it (and to us through media.)
Because we own the airwaves, it gives us great leverage when
innovations or politics influence what the future of media will be and how the
public will be served. So now you know how we ended up with the
system/format we have in the U.S. and how important our power is as
audience members. Keep returning to these ideas of audience
empowerment as you learn other media literacy lessons throughout the rest
of the course. Now let us address the concept of culture.
CULTURE IS…A set of attitudes, behaviors, and symbols shared by a large
group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next.
1. Culture is used in every aspect of our lives
2. The meaning of culture is relative
3. Culture is an abstraction
4. Culture is learned NOT innate
5. Culture is a collective, shared experience
6. Culture manifests in products (explicit)
7. Culture creates meaning systems (implicit)
8. Culture is a mode of transmission
9. Culture is expressed in varying degrees
10. Culture has historical context
11. Culture is stable but not static
12. Culture is learned
Generally refers to trends in music, art, and other expressions that become
popular among a group of people: slang, fashion, etc.
Common geographical origin, history, and language. Political entity
recognized by other countries. Does a passport necessarily determine
your cultural values? National culture ignores the possibility of variety of
cultures within that nationality
Represents culture: distorted and true. Creates new culture. Is a culture of its
own. Media are institutions (companies), technology, cultural forums,
How do media producers affect culture? They do it by remaining invisible
(we think of media as simply a tool or a service or a destination for
information and entertainment. We rarely take a critical look at how they
influence our lives, create the concept of “normal”, convince us to act/buy
products, convince us to engage in activities that are actually NOT good for
us. Media effects are planned, researched and implemented mostly without
The question is one of how we perceive and/or define ourselves: ARE WE
MERELY CONSUMERS? OR ARE WE ACTIVE CITIZENS OF OUR CULTURE,
OUR DEMOCRACY, and OUR WORLD?
Are you an audience member or a consumer? The juxtaposition infers that
audience members actively participate with and are served by the relationship with
media while consumers are simply the component necessary to complete a sales
transaction. We have become a culture of CONSUMERS (instead of being engaged
audience members, we behave as (and are treated by corporations as) consumers. All
sociological students regarding consumption come to the same general conclusion:
having more stuff does NOT make us happier. In fact, it makes us LESS happy.
Watch THE STORY OF STUFF (20 minutes). Watch the entire program paying
especially close attention to the “golden arrow” section.
Keep in mind that engaging with or being a member of a culture is a matter
of choice. Culture is LEARNED, it is NOT INNATE. You are not born democrat or
republican…all of those things (what it means to be those things ) are LEARNED.
And anything that can be learned, can change. In the end, it is our thoughts about
things that are more important than the things themselves. Meaning lies within
human beings not within the objects we are observing. The more aware you are
regarding your cultural participation, the more you can make the most of your time
in terms of doing what is good for you and others.
Marketers are very interested in how much time (quantity) and what kind of
interactions (quality) we have with media. They typically combine several variables
to define a demographic profile. A demographic profile (often shortened to “a
demographic or demo”) provides enough information about the typical member of
an audience to create a mental picture of a hypothetical aggregate (the entire U.S.
audience is made up of smaller sub-segments). For example, a marketer might
speak of the single, female, middle-class, age 18 to 24, college educated
Market researchers typically have two objectives when determining audience
characteristics: first to determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall
population; and secondly to create a clear and complete picture of the
characteristics of a typical member of each of segments. Once these profiles are
constructed, they can be used to develop a marketing strategy and marketing
plan—to effectively “reach” target audiences with information about their products
The five types of demographics for marketing are age, gender, income level, race
and ethnicity. For example, for age, the U.S. population is typically lumped into
these generational categories: [Ref—http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/202334#]:
Also called Gen Z, the internet generation or iGeneration, they’re the children of
the youngest boomers. Because this generation is still very young, marketing and
demographics theories are still developing. One huge distinction, however, can be
made: This generation is the only one to be born entirely in the internet era, and to
parents who are generally more accepting and knowledgeable of such technology. This
differs from the next generation, Gen Y, which sometimes dealt with tensions stemming
from their parents’ lack of technological savvy or acceptance.
Also referred to as millennials or “echo boomers,” they are the children of
boomers, ages nine to 27. Because of higher costs of living or, in some cases, the
over-protective nature of their boomer parents, many are choosing to live at home.
University of Michigan economics and public policy professor Bob Schoeni told Time
magazine that the percentage of 26-year-olds living with their parents rose from 11
percent to 20 percent between 1970 and 2004. They’re 75 million strong and they have
disposable income because of their parents’ support. Growing up with computers
means this generation is especially responsive to internet campaigns. They process
information quickly and are especially brand loyal. Gen Yers like innovative marketing
approaches and advertising that uses humor or is “outside the box.”
WATCH Simon Sinek’s MILLENIAL QUESTION.
They are perhaps the most overlooked generation, falling in the shadow of the powerful
baby-boom generation. But the 44 million Gen Xers born between 1965 and 1975 are
entering their peak earning and buying years. They’re tech-savvy and love to shop.
They have a high value for education and knowledge. Unlike Gen Yers, brand prestige
alone won’t woo this generation–let them know why your product is a good value. They
are independent and like to save.
Until the boomer generation hit age 50, marketers generally forgot consumers
once they passed that age mark. Today, however, they’re awakening to the buying
power of this 76 million-strong group. On average boomers spend $400 billion more per
year than any other generation. They’re at many life stages: empty nesters or full
nesters, boomer grandparents, single or married, etc. What they have in common is
exceptional drive and the ability to evaluate advertising and determine its value to them.
Between 2005 and 2030, the over-60 group will grow by 80 percent–as they age, be
careful not to label them as “old.” This generation has a Peter Pan complex–play up
their youthfulness in marketing. The Greatest Generation Born between 1909 and 1945,
today’s octogenarian has seen it all when it comes to advertising, resulting in a
particularly savvy consumer segment. They are more careful about whom they do
business with, and they want to know more about your business before they choose to
patronize it. Having been born during, or lived through, the Great Depression, World
War II and many economic recessions, they’re keen on value and in general don’t “shop
for fun” as other generations tend to do. They have pensions to rely on that other
generations won’t have as they become senior citizens, so concentrate on
communicating the value of your product or services. A practical bunch, they also tend
to be extremely loyal customers.
But marketers don’t stop there.
They are also interested in our psychographics. Psychographics is the study
of personality, values, opinions, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles. Because this
area of research focuses on interests, attitudes, and opinions, psychographic
factors are also called IAO variables.
Psychographic studies of individuals or communities can be valuable in the
fields of marketing, demographics, opinion research, futuring, and social research
in general. Psychographics should not be confused with demographics, for
example, historical generations (listed above) may be defined both by
demographics, such as the years in which a particular generation is born or even
the fertility rates of that generation’s parents, but also by psychographic variables
like attitudes, personality formation, and cultural touchstones. For example, the
traditional approaches to defining the Baby Boom Generation or Generation X or
Millennials have relied on both demographic variables (classifying individuals based
on birth years) and psychographic variables (such as beliefs, attitudes, values and
MEDIA ECONOMICS: Show me the money. Follow the money.
There are two important things you need to learn regarding media economics. 1. When
people think about the purpose of media, they may list things like: to inform, to entertain,
to help make our lives more convenient, etc. Media researchers have defined four major
functions of media:
1. To inform
2. To persuade
3. To entertain
4. To transmit culture
5. But one of the top purposes of media is to SELL SELL SELL in order to
Not much is left to chance, every image is planned down to the finest detail. Media use
all information at their disposal. They pay for studies to determine media effects (and
how people think/feel so the effects can …
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