Word Limits : The maximum word limit for this assessment is 2400 words. DeadLine : 22 May 2022 UK Time.
Required to produce a ‘professional’ standard Business Plan (using Virgin Startup Template provided with this assignment)

The business plan must be based on either: 
1. A new business idea
2. A developing a plan for an existing business (this could be a family business, or a business known to you)

1

THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTHAMPTON
Faculty of Business and Law

MODULE NAME:

Module Code Level Credit Value Module Tutor

MKTM033

7 20 Dr Lim Keai

Assessment Brief

Assessment title:

PJ1 Business Plan

Deadline:

Monday 23 May 2022

Weighting:
60%

Feedback and

Grades due:

TBC

Resit Date:

Please see NILE

Please read this assessment brief in its entirety before starting work on it.

2

The Assessment Task

You are required to produce a ‘professional’ standard Business Plan (using Virgin Startup

Template provided with this assignment).

The business plan must be based on either:

1. A new business idea

2. A developing a plan for an existing business (this could be a family business, or a

business known to you)

If you choose to focus on latter, please make sure that you identify a novel business proposition

for the existing business.

Please use the template provided with this assignment (see NILE).

Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes that are being assessed in this assessment are:

b Develop a business plan which demonstrates commercial awareness of a specific

industry through the evaluation of a realistic business opportunity.

d Communicate effectively with specialist and non-specialist audiences, using evidence-

based approaches and selecting appropriate tools and strategies to convey meaning

and purpose.

e Build on a recognised opportunity to systematically evaluate the selected industry and

produce a viable business plan.

Your grade will depend on the extent to which you meet these learning outcomes in the way

relevant for this assessment. Please see the grading rubric at the end of this assessment brief

for further details of the criteria against which you will be assessed.

Word Limits (where appropriate)

The maximum word limit for this assessment is 2400 words

In accordance with the Assessment and Feedback Policy, as stated in section 4.40 where a

submission exceeds the stipulated word limit by more than 10%, the submission will only be

marked up to and including the additional 10%. Anything over this will not be included in

the final grade for the assessment item. Abstracts, bibliographies, reference lists,

appendices and footnotes are excluded from any word limit requirements.

In line with section 4.41 of the same Policy, where a submission is notably under the

word limit, the full submission will be marked on the extent to which the learning

objectives have been met.

http://tundrasearch.northampton.ac.uk/results/searchresult.aspx?Search=&Title=&Description=TLAF+Assmt&submit=Search

3

4

Assessment Support

Assessment support will be provided through Virtual Classroom environments and F2F.

Generic Grading Criteria

You will find the generic grading criteria for achievement at University Grading Criteria. Also

explained here are the meanings of the various G grades at the bottom of the grading scale.

Assessment Submission

To submit your work, please go to the ‘Submit your work’ area on the NILE site and use the

relevant submission point to upload your report. The deadline for this is 11.59pm (UK local

time) on the date of submission.

Written work submitted to TURNITIN will be subject to anti-plagiarism detection software.

Turnitin checks student work for possible textual matches against internet available resources

and its own proprietary database.

When you upload your work correctly to TURNITIN you will receive a receipt which is your

record and proof of submission.

If your assessment is not submitted to TURNITIN rather than a receipt you will see a green

banner at the top of the screen that denotes successful submission.

N.B Work emailed directly to your tutor will not be marked. The only exception to this

is when you are instructed to do so because TURNITIN is down.

Late submission of work

For first sits, if an item of assessment is submitted late and an extension has not been

granted, the following will apply:

• Within one week of the original deadline – work will be marked and returned with full

feedback, and awarded a maximum bare pass grade.

• More than one week from original deadline – maximum grade achievable LG (L

indicating late).

Extensions

The University of Northampton’s general policy with regard to extensions is to be supportive

of students who have genuine difficulties, but not against pressures of work that could have

reasonably been anticipated.

For full details please refer to the Extensions Policy. The module leader can, where

appropriate, authorise a short extension of up to two weeks from the original submission

date for first sits only.

Mitigating Circumstances

For guidance on Mitigating circumstances please go to Mitigating Circumstances where you

will find detailed guidance on the policy as well as guidance and the form for making an

application.

http://tundrasearch.northampton.ac.uk/results/searchresult.aspx?Search=&Title=&Description=TLAF+ACRE+GC+11+&submit=Search

http://tundrasearch.northampton.ac.uk/results/searchresult.aspx?Search=&Title=&Description=Stuiss+Exts&submit=Search

http://tundrasearch.northampton.ac.uk/results/searchresult.aspx?Search=&Title=&Description=Stuiss+Mit+circs&submit=Search

5

Please note, however, that an application to defer an assessment on the grounds of mitigating

circumstances should normally be made in advance of the submission deadline or

examination date.

Plagiarism and Academic Integrity

Unless this is a group assessment, the work you produce must be your own with work taken

from any other source properly referenced and attributed. The University of Northampton

policy will apply in all cases of copying, plagiarism or any other methods by which students have

obtained (or attempted to obtain) an unfair advantage.

If you are in any doubt about what constitutes plagiarism or any other infringement of

academic integrity, please read the University’s Academic Integrity and Misconduct Policy. For

help with understanding academic integrity go to UNPAC and follow the Top Tips for Good

Academic Practice on the student hub.

Please note that the penalties for copying work from another source without proper

referencing are severe and can include failing the assessment, failing the module and

expulsion from the university.

Feedback and Grades

These can be accessed through clicking on the Feedback and Grades tab on NILE. Feedback

will be provided by a rubric with summary comments.

http://tundrasearch.northampton.ac.uk/results/searchresult.aspx?Search=&Title=&Description=Stuiss+AcMp&submit=Search

https://mypad.northampton.ac.uk/academicintegrity/courses/

https://mynorthamptonac.sharepoint.com/sites/student/study/top-tips-for-good-academic-practice

https://mynorthamptonac.sharepoint.com/sites/student/study/top-tips-for-good-academic-practice

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Produced by Library and Learning Services
7th Edition, 2021

Harvard Referencing
Guide

1

Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
What is referencing? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

When do you need to reference? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

When is a reference not needed? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

Citing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Referring to sources within your work (citing)…………………………………………………………. 7
Citing a short quotation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Citing a long quotation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote…………………………………………………………………… 8

Making changes to quotations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Omitting part of a quotation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation. ………………………………………………. 8

Pointing out an error ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Adding your own emphasis……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Citing more than one source ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Citing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………………….. 9

Citing sources by same author in same year ……………………………………………………………… 9

Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in the same year …………………..10

Citing a corporate author ………………………………………………………………………………………10
How do I cite a source with missing publication details? ……………………………………………..10

Citing a source without a given author………………………………………………………………….10

Citing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………………….10

Updated versions…………………………………………………………………………………………………11

Abbreviating organisation names ……………………………………………………………………………11
Citing a source used within another source: secondary referencing ……………………………….11

Citing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………………12

Compiling your reference list …………………………………………………………………………………12

References list or bibliography? …………………………………………………………………………..12
Elements of a reference…………………………………………………………………………………………13

Publication information in the frontmatter of a book ………………………………………………….13

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

Reverse title page……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

How do I reference if publication details are missing? …………………………………………………14
Referencing a source without a given author………………………………………………………….14

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Referencing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………….14

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary referencing ………………………………..15

Referencing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………….15
Referencing sources by the same author in the same year……………………………………………15

Referencing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………15

What is a DOI?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Referencing a source not listed in this guide……………………………………………………………..16
Example essay extract with citations and references list……………………………………………….16

Example reference formats for different source types………………………………………………….17

A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Act of Parliament………………………………………………………………………………………………18

App (Mobile) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………18
Archive material ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art or graffiti) ..19

Artwork (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Art installation/exhibition …………………………………………………………………………………..20
B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

Blog ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Book ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21

Book (translation) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..21

Book volume ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21
Book chapter (in an edited book) …………………………………………………………………………22

Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters) ……………………………………22

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables…………………………………………………………..23

British Standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………23

C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
Case Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Cochrane Review………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Command Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Computer game ……………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Computer program …………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Computer software code ……………………………………………………………………………………26

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students] ……………………………………………………26

Header [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………………………..26

Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students] ……………………………………………………..26

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Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students] …………………………………………27

Method Referencing [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………27

Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students] …………………………………27
Conference paper……………………………………………………………………………………………..28

Conference poster…………………………………………………………………………………………….28

Conversation (in person)…………………………………………………………………………………….28

D………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Dance performance …………………………………………………………………………………………..29

Dance (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Dataset …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

E ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30

e-book (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
e-book (via e-book reader) …………………………………………………………………………………31

e-book chapter in an edited e-book …………………………………………………………………….31

Email………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions) ……………………………..32
F ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Facebook ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33

Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download) …………………………………………………………….33

Film (DVD: commentaries and special features) ………………………………………………………33

Film (streamed) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
G ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34

Government document ……………………………………………………………………………………..34

H………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35

Hansard ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers ……………………………………………………..35
I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (Creative Commons licensed) …………………………………………………………………….36

Informal or in-house publication………………………………………………………………………….36
International standards………………………………………………………………………………………37

Interview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………37

Instagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

J ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article…………………………………………………………………………………………………..38

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Journal article (forthcoming) ……………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………….39

Journal article (no issue number; article number given)…………………………………………….39
L……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet (with no date)…………………………………………………………………………………………40

Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes……………………………………………………………………………………..40
Legislation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

M ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

Magazine article ……………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Magazine article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………41
Market report…………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (Digimap) …………………………………………………………………………………………………42

Map (Google Earth) …………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (printed) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
Map (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact ………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact (online)……………………………………………………………………………………44

Music (live performance/concert)…………………………………………………………………………44

Band concert: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Classical: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (lyrics) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (musical score/sheet music) ……………………………………………………………………….46

Music (recorded track)……………………………………………………………………………………….46

Music streaming……………………………………………………………………………………………….47
N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

Newspaper article …………………………………………………………………………………………….47

Newspaper article (online) ………………………………………………………………………………….47

O………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
Ofsted report …………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

Online discussion list or discussion forum ……………………………………………………………..48

Organisational documents/policies ………………………………………………………………………48

Organisational documents/policies (anonymised)……………………………………………………49

P ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49

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Patent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49

PDFs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………50

Play ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
Podcast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50

Poem, short story or play in an anthology ……………………………………………………………..51

Poem in a collection ………………………………………………………………………………………….51

R ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
Radio broadcast ……………………………………………………………………………………………….51

Religious text …………………………………………………………………………………………………..52

S ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52

Self-citation …………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Skype……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Sound recording (based on recorded lectures) ……………………………………………………….53

Statutory Instrument …………………………………………………………………………………………53

T ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54

Telephone call………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
Television advertisement ……………………………………………………………………………………54

Television programme (broadcast) ……………………………………………………………………….55

Television programme (streamed content, e.g. Netflix, BBC iPlayer)…………………………….55

Theatre performance (live) ………………………………………………………………………………….55

Theatre programme (print) …………………………………………………………………………………56
Thesis or dissertation…………………………………………………………………………………………56

Translated material……………………………………………………………………………………………56

Twitter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

V ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

Video (online e.g. YouTube, TED) …………………………………………………………………………57
Video (subscribed content e.g. Anatomy TV, SAGE video) …………………………………………58

W ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58

Webinar ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58

Website or webpage …………………………………………………………………………………………59
Wiki ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….59

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….60

6

Introduction
This guide has been designed to provide examples and guidance on how to
use UON Harvard referencing in a consistent and accurate manner.

Library and Learning Services have also produced a two-page quick start to referencing, ‘The
Harvard Referencing – Quick Guide’. It is important to check with your tutor to see if they
have any specific referencing requirements.

What is referencing?
Referencing is a way of acknowledging other peoples’ ideas and work. You do this through
a citation (in the text of your work) and a reference at the end of your work.
References to other people’s ideas and work are an important part of academic writing as
they:

• provide support for arguments and claims that you make
• show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading

Remember to reference every source that you use:
• to avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and use them

as your own)
• to allow the reader of your work to refer to the original source to check and verify the

ideas presented
• to avoid losing marks!

When do you need to reference?
You need to reference when:
• you quote another person (or group of people) or copy images
• you write about an idea which another person (or group of people) has created.

For example:
There has been a tendency amongst health workers to diagnose women experiencing
domestic violence with a mental illness, rather than identifying the distress as a result
of violence (Harne and Radford, 2008, p.44).

When is a reference not needed?
You do not need to reference when:
• when you are writing about your own ideas (unless you have included them in a previous

assignment)
• when the information you are writing about is common knowledge, for example:
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire.

To decide whether a piece of information is common knowledge, ask yourself whether your
reader could be familiar with the information without needing to do any research and
whether the information is widely available. If the answer to both of these is ‘yes’, the
information is probably common knowledge; but it’s better to err on the side of caution and
include a reference if you are in any doubt.

7

Citing
Referring to sources within your work (citing)
The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you have
used for any of the reasons listed above. If you are using a direct quotation or are referring
to a specific idea or assertion by an author, you need to let your reader know where you
found the information by giving the author/creator’s surname, the year and the page
number, e.g. (Surname, Year, Page).

Example 1: Research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem (Jones,
2010, p.4)
Example 2: Jones’ research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem
(2010, p.4)

The page number is important, as one of the prime functions of referencing is to enable your
reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify the conclusions you
have drawn. By using the page number, your reader can do this without having to read the
entire work. If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to a work
by an author in its entirety or to a more general argument you only need to include the
author/creator’s surname and the year, e.g. (Surname, Year).
If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the year and
page number (if applicable), e.g. (Year, Page).

Example 1: Terry Eagleton (1983) created an essential guide to literary theory that still
resonates into the twenty first century…
Example 2: Nikki Gamble has created a set of activities to aid narrative thinking and
investigation (2013, p.70) …

Citing a short quotation
… whilst it is possible that “poor parenting has little effect on primary educational
development it more profoundly affects secondary or higher educational achievement”
(Healey, 2003, p.22).
Remember: it is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the
author’s words into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This
demonstrates more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Citing a long quotation
Note: There is no need to use quotation marks. Instead start a new line and indent the
quotation.

Example: The methodology required for a thorough literature search requires an
understanding of a number of different sources:

… it is important to be familiar with the tertiary sources (bibliographies of
bibliographies), which will help you to identify the secondary sources (such as
bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to primary sources for
your review (Pickard, 2013, p.27).

8

You do not need to include the page number from the quotation in your reference list. If you
are taking a quotation from a website you may not be able to find a page number, so you
will need to include an indication of where the quote can be found. Give a line or screen
number instead, e.g. use [45 lines] or [approx. 5 screens].

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote
It is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the author’s words
into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This demonstrates
more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Making changes to quotations
Making small changes to quotations can help you integrate them into your own writing.
Omitting part of a quotation or adding your own letters, words or phrases
can create a smooth transition between your ideas and those of the authors you are quoting.
However, make sure you do not change the original meaning.

Omitting part of a quotation
Indicate this by using three dots (an ellipsis):

Example: Bell (2014, p.105) states that the main purpose of a literature review is to “provide
the reader with a picture … of the state of knowledge and of major questions on the
subject”.

You do not need to begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already
assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation.
Indicate this with brackets [ ]:

Example:
Original quotation:
‘In this field, social workers are working very closely with families …’ (Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Quotation with an insertion:
‘In this field [crime prevention], social workers are working very closely with families …’
(Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Pointing out an error
Do not correct typographical or grammatical errors (such as a spelling mistake or incorrect
date); instead add [sic] after the original:
Gardner (2008, p.35) pointed out that ‘the government maid [sic] the wrong decision’.

Adding your own emphasis
If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay,
put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own.

9

Example: Bell (2014, p. 239) explains that in qualitative data analysis “it is not the words
themselves that matter, but their meaning” (emphasis added).

If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original.

Example: Bell (2014, p. 82) acknowledges that “all disciplines have a core of quality journals
that include nationally or even internationally refereed articles” (italics in original).

Citing more than one source
If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi colon.

Example: There are many factors relating to individuals’ perceived body image. Jones (2010,
p.4) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem, whereas others believe a more
complex relationship exists (Philips, 1995; Norton, 2005).

In your reference list at the end of your work, make sure you reference these separately.

Citing a source with more than one author
Some sources will have several authors. If there are two authors, write (Surname A and
Surname B, Year). In your text, your citation could look like this:

Example: A number of practitioners have tackled the issue of teaching information skills in
the university setting (Webb and Powis, 2004).
If there are more than two authors, you can use et al. which means ‘and others’ in Latin, e.g.
(Surname et al., Year). For three or more authors, don’t list all of them, just the first one
named: …There has been some debate amongst medical practitioners on the issue
(Williamson et al., 2008) …

However, in your reference list you must make sure you give credit to all the authors (don’t
use et al.). Instead, write all of the authors in the order that they appear on your source as
shown below:

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in contemporary
healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
Remember: et al. should be in italics with a full stop, as it is an abbreviation.

Citing sources by same author in same year
If you are referring to two sources by the same author, produced in the same year, you can
distinguish between them by adding letters to the end of the year for both your citation and
reference.

Example: Research into the importance of chocolate on individuals’ moods has highlighted a
difference between the cocoa levels of chocolate (Hoskin, 2011a, p.41). This has indicated
that the higher the cocoa levels, the greater impact the chocolate has on mood (Hoskin,
2011b, p.12). However, further research is investigating how much of this is related to the
sugars within the chocolate (Hoskin and Siddall, 2012, p.21).

10

Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in
the same year
If you are citing two authors with the same surname, who have published in the same year,
you can include their initials to differentiate between them.
Example: It is important that students develop academic skills as soon as possible during
their HE course (Williams, N., 2013, p.12), otherwise students are likely to fall behind as they
progress through their course (Williams, E., 2013, p.30). Therefore, academic skills should be
embedded in first year courses at University.

Citing a corporate author
You may come across a source which has a corporate author, where an organisation rather
than an individual is responsible for the work. For instance, a government organisation would
be cited in the same way as an author, with the organisation name as the author.

Example: (Department of Health, 2013).

Remember: some sources are the result of collaboration between many contributors, none of
whom can claim authorship, e.g. dictionaries, encyclopaedias or films. In this case you can
use the title in place of the author name, for example: Gone with the Wind.

How do I cite a source with missing publication details?
Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basic publication details. In
these cases, it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these are not available. A series of
abbreviations can be used and are generally accepted for this purpose:

No date: use [n.d.]
No place (sine loco): use [s.l.]
No publisher: use [s.n.]
Not known: use [n.k.]

For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page you are referencing to the
‘Home Page’ for the whole site or at a link such as ‘About Us’ from that home page. Dates
are often given at the bottom of web pages.
Citing a source without a given author
First you should check if the publication has a Corporate Author and if so use this. If there is
no corporate author and the author cannot be identified, use Anon. and date of publication.

Example: in text citation
(Anon., 2009)
Citing a source without a given date
If there is no date for a source, use the author name and [n.d.].

Example: in text citation
(McCullough, [n.d.])

11

Updated versions
Many publications, such as government publications, are updated over time. For example,
the Statutory framework for the early years foundation stage was originally published in 2014,
and most recently updated in 2018. You should use the date when the publication was last
updated in your citation and reference. If you are writing about a change between the
original and updated versions you can show this in your citation by using the original year,
“updated in” and the year it was updated.

Example: (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2010 updated in 2020).

Abbreviating organisation names
The first time you write the name of an organisation, it must be written in full, with the
abbreviation afterwards in brackets.

Example: Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)

Thereafter, you can use the abbreviation without writing the full name first, this includes
citations.

Example: The professional code of ethics for midwives clearly states… (NMC, 2018).

If you have not already introduced the abbreviation in the main body of your work, or cited
the organisation, then the citation for the first mention of the organisation would be
formatted as follows:

Example: The professional code of ethics for midwives clearly states… (Nursing and
Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018).

The reference in the reference list needs to match your citations.

Example: NMC (2018) The Code. NMC [online]. Available
from: https://www.nmc.org.uk/ [Accessed 5 March 2019].

Citing a source used within another source: secondary
referencing
A secondary reference is when you refer to someone cited within another source, i.e. you
have not read the original work. Ideally, you should always try and read the original source
so that you can review the work first-hand. If you are not able to locate the original source, it
is acceptable to reference it as a secondary reference, following the format below.

Example: in text citation: (Bancroft and Silverman, 2002, cited in Harne and Radford, 2008,
p.63)

Note: in your references list, you only include details of the sources you have read and
directly consulted.

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For referencing a secondary source, see ‘Referencing a source used within another source:
secondary referencing’.

Citing confidential material
You may need to refer to confidential material: for example, if you have access to an
organisation’s intranet whilst on placement and need to cite some of their
documents. To protect the identity of the organisation, it is important you anonymise the
information. If in doubt about whether to include material, seek guidance from the relevant
module leader.

Format: anonymised in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (Placement location, 2017).
A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school
(Placement location, 2018).

Format: anonymised reference
Placement location (Year) Anonymised title of document [Type of report, unless this is
obvious from the title]. Placement provider.

Example: anonymised in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (Placement location, 2017).
A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school
(Placement location, 2018).

Example: anonymised reference
Placement location (2017) Hand hygiene policy. Placement provider.
Placement location (2018) Pupil behaviour. [School policy document.] Placement provider.

Compiling your reference list
References list or bibliography?
What is the difference between a references list and a bibliography?
References list: a list of all the sources that you have cited within your work, presented
alphabetically.
Bibliography: a list of everything that you have cited and everything that you have consulted
to help improve your understanding of the topic.
Sometimes people use the terms references list and bibliography interchangeably, although
strictly speaking they are not the same thing. You should check with your tutor to see if
they would prefer to have a references list or a full bibliography.
Make sure that if you have cited something, there is a complete reference to match at the
end of your work. References must be listed in alphabetical order by the author’s surname or
the name of the creator/company.

Remember: It is good practice to record the reference information required before you start
reading and making notes on your source. It means you can easily refer to the material you
need, without having to search for it again.

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Elements of a reference
There are different types of information which you can use in your reference depending on
the source.
Author(s) This is who wrote or created the source. It could be an individual, group

of people or an organisation.
Year of publication The year the source was published. This may be the edition year, or the

copyright © date on a website may give you an indication.
Title of
article/chapter

When you are referring to a section of a bigger piece of work, you may
need to give the title of the section that you’re looking at, for example
a book chapter.

Publication title The name of the source, for example book title or journal name.
Place of
publication

If the source is published, the location may be listed on the source, for
example the office address of the book publisher. This should be a
town or city, not a country. Use the first place listed.

Publisher Normally a company who has produced the information and made it
publicly available.

Edition or volume
information

This is to indicate if it is a part of a series or if a source replaces an
earlier copy. A second edition of a book is an update to the first. For
example, it may include more or different information to the earlier
version. A journal will produce several issues a year, so you need to
include the volume and issue number to demonstrate where in the
series this source comes from.

Page span If you are referring to something within a larger piece of work, for
example a book chapter, you should include the first and last page of
that section.

URL or web
address

If you have accessed something from the internet, you will need to
include the full web address for that information. You can copy and
paste this from your browser bar into your reference list.

Remember: note down the complete reference details for any source that you use, whether
it is a book, journal article, website or a source that you have photocopied.

Publication information in the frontmatter of a book
Within the first few pages (often blank) of a printed book there are two pages that contain
the information you need to cite and reference correctly.

Title page
The title page usually appears on a right hand page. It will usually have:

• The title of the book, along with any subtitles
• The author(s)
• Publisher name (and sometimes place of publication)
• Edition number
• Year of publication.

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It can also acknowledge non-author contributions, such as an illustrator, photographer or
another major contributor.

Reverse title page
The reverse title page, also called the copyright page, has additional information you will
need to cite and reference a printed book. It usually appears on a left hand page, opposite or
on the reverse of the title page. It usually includes;

• Full name and address of the publisher
• Who the work is copyrighted to, or it can just say that the work is copyrighted and

the year
• British Library Record/ ISBN (International Standard Book Number- a unique number

given to every book)
• First publication year (and any additional years of reprint)
• List the non-authors who contributed
• Location of printer
• Sometimes used to give thanks/ dedicate the work
• Environmental information about the publisher- printers’ commitment to the

environment.

How do I reference if publication details are missing?
Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basic publication details. In
these cases, it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these are not available. A series of
abbreviations can be used and are generally accepted for this purpose:

No date: use [n.d.]
No place (sine loco): use [s.l.]
No publisher: use [s.n.]
Not known: use [n.k.]

For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page you are referencing to the
‘Home Page’ for the whole site or at a link such as ‘About Us’ from that home page. Dates
are often given at the bottom of web pages.

Referencing a source without a given author
First you should check if the publication has a Corporate Author and if so use this. If there is
no corporate author and the author cannot be identified, use Anon. and date of publication.

Example: Anon. (1807) The happy villagers. Dublin: J. Shea.

Referencing a source without a given date
If there is no date for a source, use the author name and [n.d.].

Example: McCullough, A. [n.d.] Sustainable design within economic restrictions. London: Bryn
Press.

15

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary
referencing
A secondary reference is when you refer to someone cited within another source, i.e. you
have not read the original work. Ideally, you should always try and read the original source
so that you can review the work first-hand. If you are not able to locate the original source, it
is acceptable to reference it as a secondary reference, following the format below.
So, if you cited:
(Bancroft and Silverman, 2002, cited in Harne and Radford, 2008, p.63), you would reference
the work you read directly.

Example: Harne, L. and Radford, J. (2008) Tackling domestic violence: theories, policies and
practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Note: in your references list, you only include details of the sources you have read and
directly consulted.
For citing a secondary reference, see ‘Citing a source within a source: secondary referencing’.

Referencing a source with more than one author
Some sources will have several authors. In a citation, you would use et al. when
there are more than 2 authors (see ‘Citing a source with more than one author’). However, in
your reference list you must make sure you give credit to all the authors (don’t use et al.).
Instead, write the names of all authors in the order that they appear on your source.

Example: Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in
contemporary healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Referencing sources by the same author in the same year
If you are referring to two sources by the same author, produced in the same year, you can
distinguish between them by adding letters to the end of the year for both your citation and
reference.

Example: Hoskin, B. (2011a) Cocoa growing: implications for sustained development. Journal
of Sustainable Growth. 39(5) pp.44-51.
Hoskin, B. (2011b) Global warming effects on cocoa crops. Journal of Sustainable Growth. 4(5)
pp.94-101.

Referencing confidential material
You may need to reference confidential material, for example, if you have access to an
organisation’s intranet whilst on placement and need to cite some of their
documents. To protect the identity of the organisation, it is important you anonymise the
information. If in doubt about whether to include material, seek guidance from the relevant
module leader.

Format: anonymised in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (Placement location, 2017).

16

A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school
(Placement location, 2018).

Format: anonymised reference
Placement location (Year) Anonymised title of document [Type of report, unless this is
obvious from the title]. Placement provider.

Example: anonymised in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (Placement location, 2017).
A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school
(Placement location, 2018).

Example: anonymised reference
Placement location (2017) Hand hygiene policy. Placement provider.
Placement location (2018) Pupil behaviour. [School policy document.] Placement provider.

What is a DOI?
DOI is an abbreviation for Digital Object Identifier. It is a unique code assigned to a specific
document and can help you locate or identify it. It is attached to the document, wherever it
is located. If you want to find a document using a DOI, use the URL
beginning: http://doi.org/ and follow it with the DOI.

Referencing a source not listed in this guide
If possible, try to find something similar in the A-Z index and use your judgement in applying
the same formatting rules. Remember you can contact the Academic Librarian and
Learning Development teams for further help with specific referencing queries.

Email contacts:
Academic Librarians: [email protected]
Learning Development: [email protected]

Example essay extract with citations and references list
Below is an example essay, complete with citations and references. Please remember this
is a fictional essay purely designed to demonstrate how and when to reference.

There has been a tendency amongst health workers to diagnose women experiencing
domestic violence with a mental illness, rather than identifying the distress as a result
of violence (Harne and Radford, 2008, p.44). However, progress has been made in helping
the general public to recognise the signs and raise awareness of the many support networks
in the UK (COAP, 2009). Some social work practitioners have used different techniques to try
and change the environment where domestic violence is prevalent (Gray, 2009). The
education of health practitioners now includes ways of identifying and supporting victims of
domestic violence “the NMC recognizes the importance of community nurses in supporting
families to contact the support services where domestic violence occurs” (Williamson et al.,
2008, p.25).

mailto:[email protected]

mailto:[email protected]

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References
COAP (2009) Children of addicted parents and people. COAP [online]. Available from:
http://www.coap.org.uk/ [Accessed 18th July 2013].

Gray, B. (2009) Befriending excluded families in Tower Hamlets: the emotional labour of
family support workers in cases of child protection and family support. British Journal of
Social Work, 39(6), pp.990-1007.

Harne, L. and Radford, J. (2008) Tackling domestic violence: theories, policies and
practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in contemporary
healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Bibliography
COAP (2009) Children of addicted parents and people. COAP [online]. Available
from: http://www.coap.org.uk/ [Accessed 18th July 2013].

Gray, B. (2009) Befriending excluded families in Tower Hamlets: the emotional labour of
family support workers in cases of child protection and family support. British Journal of
Social Work, 39(6), pp.990-1007.

Harne, L. and Radford, J. (2008) Tackling domestic violence: theories, policies and
practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Hinchliff, S., Norman, S. and Schober, J. (2008) Nursing practice and health care. 5th ed.
London: Hodder Arnold.
NSPCC (2009) Children talking to ChildLine about parental alcohol drug
misuse. NSPCC [online]. Available
from: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/publications/casenotes/parental_alcohol_drug_misuse
_wda78113.html [Accessed 17th July 2013].

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in contemporary
healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Example reference formats for different source types

Points to note:

• In all the examples that follow, for simplicity we have demonstrated each example as
if citing an author’s work in its entirety, rather than a specific idea. Depending on
what you are citing or what you have already included within your written text you
may need to also include a page number or just include the year, e.g.: (Eagleton,
1983, p.110) or (1983, p.110) or …Eagleton (1983) writes that… Please refer to the
section on citing for detailed guidance.

• Always take your tutors’ preferences on referencing

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• Examples given are for illustrative purposes only and may not relate to actual works

• You will see a variety of formats for accessed dates in this guide. There is no definitive

format for dates, but it is important you are consistent with the format you use.

A
Act of Parliament
Acts of Parliaments should be treated the same whether found in print or online.

Format: in text citation
It is illegal to facilitate the travel of a person for the purpose of exploitation (Title of Act,
Year).
Title of Act (Year) states that local authorities have a general duty in relation to children in
need.

Format: reference
Title of Act and Year Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
It is illegal to facilitate the travel of a person for the purpose of exploitation (Modern Slavery
Act, 2015).
The Children Act (1989) states that local authorities have a general duty in relation to
children in need.

Example: reference
Modern Slavery Act 2015 London: TSO.
Children Act 1989 London: HMSO.
Note: Prior to 1996, The Stationery Office (TSO) was known as Her Majesty’s Stationery Office
(HMSO).

App (Mobile)
Format: in text citation
Blackboard mobile learn can improve student experience (Developer, Year).

Format: reference
Developer (Year) Title of app (version number). [Mobile app]. Available from: URL [Date
accessed].

Example: in text citation
Blackboard mobile learn can improve student experience (Blackboard Inc., 2018).

Example: reference
Blackboard Inc. (2018) Blackboard mobile learn (Version 3.1.4). [mobile app]. Available
from: https://www.blackboard.com/teaching-learning/learning-management/mobile-
learning-solutions [Accessed 28 November 2018].

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Archive material
Format: in text citation
A collection of photographs and press cuttings document Hythe Senior Girls School
evacuation to Pembrokeshire during the Second World War (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, Initials. (Year) Title of document. [Type of medium]. Collection, Document
number. Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository.

Example: in text citation
A collection of photographs and press cuttings document Hythe Senior Girls School
evacuation to Pembrokeshire during the Second World War (Wheeler, 1943).

Example: reference
Wheeler, K. (1943) Second World War album recording the evacuation of a Kent School to
Pembrokeshire. [Private papers] Second World War, Document 10662. London: Imperial War
Museum.

Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art
or graffiti)
Format: in text citation
Created in the months after Marilyn Monroe’s death, Marilyn Diptych (Artist surname, Year)
deals with the themes of death and cult of celebrity…

Format: reference
Artist surname, initials. (Year) Title of artwork or image [Medium]. Town/Place: Name of
Library/Archive/Repository/Collection/Locality.

Example: in text citation
Created in the months after Marilyn Monroe’s death, Marilyn Diptych (Warhol, 1962) …

Example: reference
Warhol, A. (1962) Marilyn Diptych [Acrylic on canvas]. London: Tate.

Artwork (online)
Note: The suggested reference is the same as with online images, but if the image is a
known artwork it is useful to also note the medium, as in the example below.

Format: in text citation
Created in the months after Marilyn Monroe’s death, Marilyn Diptych (Artist surname, Year)
deals with the themes of death and cult of celebrity…

Format: reference
Artist surname, initials. (Year) Title of artwork or image [Medium] Source [online]. Available
from: website [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation

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Created in the months after Marilyn Monroe’s death, Marilyn Diptych (Warhol, 1962) …

Example: reference
Warhol, A. (1962) Marilyn Diptych [Acrylic on canvas]. Tate [online]. Available
from: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/warhol-marilyn-diptych-t03093 [Accessed 29
August 2019].

Art installation/exhibition
Note: If referencing an exhibition use the surname of the curator. If referencing a specific
installation or artwork within an exhibition use the surname of the artist.

Format: in text citation
Exhibitions throughout the 1990s hit the tabloids and raised the profile of British artists
through the inclusion of controversial images (Artist/curator surname, Year) and…

Format: reference
Artist/ curator surname, initials. (Year) Title of exhibition or
installation [Exhibition/Installation]. Location, Date seen.

Example: in text citation
Exhibitions throughout the 1990s hit the tabloids and raised the profile of British artists
through the inclusion of controversial images (Rosenthal and Saatchi, 1997) and…
Example: reference
Rosenthal N. and C. Saatchi (1997) Sensation [Exhibition]. Royal Academy of Art, London, 18
September.

B
Blog
Format: in text citation
A number of considerations must be taken into account when making something accessible
to all (Author, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, Initial. (2010) Article title. Blog name [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed
date].

Example: in text citation
A number of considerations must be taken into account when making something accessible
to all (Powell, 2010).

Example: reference
Powell, P. (2010) Adapting to accessibility. Boagworks and Boagworld [online]. Available from:
http://boagworld.com/accessibility/adaptive-accessibility/ [Accessed 10th December 2019].

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Book
Format: in text citation
Letters are used to add further characterisation to the story (Surname, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Letters are used to add further characterisation to the story (Dickens, 2014, p.259).

Example: Reference
Dickens, C. (2014) Great expectations. London: CD Press.
Note: You do not include the edition information if it is the first edition.

Example: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited training
(Orem, 2009, p.23).

Example: Reference
Orem, D. E. (2009) Nursing: concepts of practice. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.

Book (translation)
If the book you want to use in your assignment has been translated you need to include the
translator details in your final reference, however you do not need to include this in the in-
text citation.
Format: in text citation
Montaigne’s philosophical essays have been reinterpreted by several different academics
(Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Translated by Surname, initial. Place of
publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Montaigne’s philosophical essays have been reinterpreted by several different academics
(Starobinski, 1986).

Example: reference
Starobinski, J. (1986) Montaigne in motion. Translated by Goldhammer, A. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.

Book volume
Format: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited training
(Surname, Year, Page).

22

Format: reference
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Volume. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited training
(Bowling, 2009, p.4).

Example: reference
Bowling, A. (2009) Research methods in health: investigating health and health
services. Volume 2. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Book chapter (in an edited book)
Format: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited training
(Surname, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Chapter author surname, initials. (Year) Title of chapter. In: Editor’s surname, initials. (ed.) Title
of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers.

Example: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited training
(Woolrich, 2009, p.90).

Example: reference
Woolrich, C. (2009) Principles of professional practice. In: Hinchliff, S., Norman, S. and
Schober, J. (eds.) Nursing practice and health care: a foundation text. 5th ed. London: Hodder
Arnold, pp.89-113.

Note: that ‘in’ is used to link the chapter to the book and the use of page numbers. The year
of publication is only given once.

Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters)
If you are using an edited book which does not have author names linked to the chapters,
then you can credit the editor of the book in your citation and reference. If you are using
more than one chapter from this same text, you will need to differentiate your citations by
using a and b after the year to clarify which chapters you are referring to, for example (Cox
and Roper, 2005a, p.13).

Format: in text citation
When dealing with patients with respiratory difficulties it is essential that health professionals
are aware of the non-verbal signals the patient is using to communicate with them (Surname,
Year, Page).

23

Format: reference
Editor surname, initials. (ed.) (Year) Title of chapter. In: Title of book. Edition. Place of
publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers.

Example: in text citation
When dealing with patients with respiratory difficulties it is essential that health professionals
are aware of the non-verbal signals the patient is using to communicate with them (Cox and
Roper, 2005, p.24).

Example: reference
Cox, N. and Roper, R. A. (eds.) (2005) Cardiovascular system. In: Clinical skills. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, pp.21-73.

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables
Format: in text citation
Escher’s 1953 lithograph Relativity (Surname, Year, Page) demonstrates how perspective and
shading can be used to create a series of optical illusions …

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page number(s),
illus./logo/fig./table

Example: in text citation
Escher’s 1953 lithograph Relativity (Locher, 2006, p.117) demonstrates how perspective and
shading can be used to create a series of optical illusions…

Example: reference
Locher, J. L. (2006) The magic of M. C. Escher. London: Thames & Hudson, p.117. illus.

Note: Substitute illus. for illustration, logo for logos, fig. for figures and table for tables, as
required. The principle for book illustrations etc. can be applied to other resource
types e.g. journal articles.

British Standards
Format: in text citation
The originator’s name and the year of publication of the document cited are given after each
reference in the text (British Standards Institute, Year).

Format: reference
British Standards Institute (Year) Title. BS number. Place: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
The originator’s name and the year of publication of the document cited are given after each
reference in the text (British Standards Institute, 2009).

Example: reference

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British Standards Institute (2009) Recommendations for citing and referencing published
material. BS5605. London: BSI.

C
Case Law
Format: in text citation
In the case of Party names (Year) …

Format: reference
Party names (Year) Source Page number.

Note: the source is in the abbreviated form

Example: in text citation
In the case of Royal Bank of Scotland Plc v Donnelly (Year) …

Example: reference
Royal Bank of Scotland Plc v Donnelly (2019) CSIH 56.

Cochrane Review
Format: in text citation
Interventions targeted at women to encourage the uptake of cervical screening were
conducted (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. Title of review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year, Issue
number, Article number. DOI: number.

Example: in text citation
Interventions targeted at women to encourage the uptake of cervical screening were
conducted (Jepson et al., 2002).

Example: reference
Jepson R., Forbes C. and Martin-Hirsch P. Interventions targeted at women to encourage the
uptake of cervical screening. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002, Issue 3, Article
Number CD002834. DOI: 10.1002/12651858.

Command Paper
These are a type of government publication, which includes White and Green Papers. also
known as Command Papers.
Format: in text citation
It was argued that teachers needed to have increased powers if discipline in schools was to
be improved (Department name, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Department Name (Year) Title of paper. Cm. Number. Place: Publisher.

25

Example: in text citation
It was argued that teachers needed to have increased powers if discipline in schools was to
be improved (Department for Education, 2010, p.2).

Example: reference
Department for Education (2010) The importance of teaching. Cm. 7980 London: TSO.
This format applies to the other types of Command Papers, such as treaties and draft bills.

Computer game
Format: in text citation
The game is renowned for its advanced graphics and open world play (Company/Developer,
Year).

Format: reference
Company/Developer (Release year) Title of game (Version if applicable). [Computer game].
Publisher. Available from: [Accessed date].

Example: in text citations
The game is renowned for its advanced graphics and open world play (Rockstar Games,
2018).
One of the most popular online games FIFA 16 (EA, 2015) …

Example: reference
Rockstar Games (2018) Red Dead Redemption 2. [Computer game]. Rockstar Games.
If accessed online, use DOI or Available from: URL [Accessed: date].

Example: reference
Rockstar Games (2018) Red Dead Redemption 2. [Computer game]. Rockstar Games.
Available from: http://www.rockstargames.com/en-gb/red_dead_redemption [Accessed: 28
March 2018].

Computer program
Format: in text citation
Adobe Air offers developers a wide range of features such as… (Author/Developer, Year).

Format: reference
Author/Developer (Year) Title of program (Version if applicable). [Computer program].
Available from: [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
Adobe Air offers developers a wide range of features such as … (Adobe, 2019).

Example: reference
Adobe (2019) Adobe Air (Version 32.0). [Computer program]. Available
from: https://get.adobe.com/air/ [Accessed 19 February 2019].

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Computer software code
Format: in text citation
GraphicsDrawer source code is an example of … (Author, Year).
Format: reference
Author/Developer (Year) Title of program (Version if applicable). [source code]. Available
from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
GraphicsDrawer source code is an example of … (Smith, 2019).

Example: reference
Smith, J. (2019) GraphicsDrawer (Version 2.0). [source code]. Available
from: http://www.graphicsdrawer.com [Accessed 13th January 2020].

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students]
The structure of a typical class/source file should contain:
• Header
• Disclaimer/copyright
• References
• Code

Header [For Computing students]
A typical header would normally include a few important headings as follows:
/**
Program: Java Graphics Screen Application
Filename: GraphicsJFrame.java
@author: © Gary Hill
Course: BSc Computing
Module: Graphics Programming
Tutor: Gary Hill
@version: 1.1
Notes 1.1 Added centreWindow method
Date: 28/10/11
*/

Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students]
A typical disclaimer/copyright section may be considered good practice that confirms that
the student is claiming that the code is the work of the student unless otherwise stated. One
suggestion is as follows:
/*
File: GraphicsJFrame.java
Disclaimer: The following source code is the sole work of the author unless otherwise stated.
Copyright (C) Gary Hill. All Rights Reserved.
*/

27

Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students]
There would need to be a reference to the standard SDK used for the source file, but any
used beyond those expected would clearly need to be identified:
//<-*****jfreechart (2012) [2] - START import org.jfree.chart.ChartFactory; import org.jfree.data.time.TimeSeriesCollection; import org.jfree.data.xy.XYDataset; import org.jfree.ui.RefineryUtilities; //->***** jfreechart (2012) [2] – END

Method Referencing [For Computing students]
As methods are self-contained, it is suggested that the reference is given at the start of the
method block as follows:
//<-***** Hill (2012) [1] - START public void centreWindow() {//Center the window Dimension screenSize = Toolkit.getDefaultToolkit().getScreenSize(); Dimension frameSize = getSize(); ………….. } //>-*****Hill(2012) [1] – END

Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students]
Methods are self-contained, but for referencing of code within a block of code it is
suggested that the reference is given at the start and end of the code section for clarity as
follows:
//<-***** Hill(2012) [1] - START Transform3D temp = new Transform3D(); viewObjectFromGroup.getTransform(temp); Transform3D tempDelta = new Transform3D(); tempDelta.setTranslation(new Vector3f(0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f)); temp.mul(tempDelta); System.out.println(temp); float matrix[] = new float[16]; //declare array of 16 floats for matrix temp.get(matrix); if (matrix[11] <= 1.0) //object front face z = 1 { System.out.println("Don't multiply Transform3D at: "+matrix[11]); } else //setTransform { viewObjectFromGroup.setTransform(temp); } //>-*****Hill(2012) [1] – END

28

Conference paper
Conference papers are often published in book form or as a special issue of a journal. It is
necessary to include the name, place and year of the conference.

Format: in text citation
Alignment of expectations and assessments is a key underlying principle of systemic and
standards-based reform (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of conference paper. In: Conference Proceedings
Title, including location and date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Alignment of expectations and assessments is a key underlying principle of systemic and
standards-based reform (Webb, 2004).
Lecturer capture can be used to support learning and can help students to understand the
subject matter (Gouia-Zarrad and Gunn, 2018).

Example: reference
Webb, N. L. (2004) Mathematics education reform in California. In: Science and mathematics
education in the United States: eight innovations: proceedings of a conference, Paris, 2000.
Paris: OECD.
Gouia-Zarrad, R. and Gunn, C.L. (2018) Students’ perceptions of lecture capture in university
math classes for engineers. In: Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International
Conferences (ASET), Abu Dhabi, 2018. Abu Dhabi: IEEE.

Conference poster
Format: in text citation
…which identified usage of online resources (Author, Year).
Format: Reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title. Poster presented to: Event name. Location, date.

Example: in text citation
…which identified usage of online resources (King, 2019).
Example: Reference
King, S. (2019) Usage of online resources within a learning development context. Poster
presented to: 16th Association for Learning Development in Higher Education (ALDinHE)
Conference. University of Exeter, 15-17 April 2019.

Conversation (in person)
Format: in text citation
The boot and shoe trade in Northampton employed many women during the 1930s and
beyond (Surname, Year).

29

Format: Reference
Surname, initials. (Year) Title of conversation. [conversation]. With: Surname, initials. Day
Month. Time.

Example: in text citation
The boot and shoe trade in Northampton employed many women during the 1930s and
beyond (Mawley, 2012).

Example: Reference
Mawley, E. (2012) Women’s experiences of the Boot and Shoe trade in Northampton.
[conversation]. With: Pugh, T. 13th March. 14:30.

D
Dance performance
Format: in text citation
The awe and wonder of those watching a ballet for the first time was evident
(Originator/Choreographer, Year).

Format: reference
Originator/Choreographer, initials. (Year of performance) Title. Performance
company/performer. Performance venue, location. [Date of performance].

Example: in text citation
The awe and wonder of those watching a ballet for the first time was evident (Ryzhenko &
Smirnov-Golovanov, 2019).

Example: reference
Ryzhenko, N. & Smirnov-Golovanov, V. (2012) Swan Lake. Moscow City Ballet.
Royal & Derngate Theatre, Northampton. [17th February 2019].

Dance (online)
Format: in text citation
The piece is still performed today (Originator/Choreographer, Year).

Format: reference
Originator/Choreographer, initials. (Year of creation) Title. Performance company/performer.
Performance venue, location. [Date of performance]. [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed
date].

Example: in text citation
The piece is still performed today (Alston, 1987).

Example: reference
Alston, R. (1987) Strong language. London Contemporary Dance School. Robin Howard
Theatre, The Place, London. [April 2017]. [Online]. Available
from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNZqZcCAflE [Accessed: 8/7/19].

30

Dataset
Format: in text citation
Data from one study (Author, Year) …
Format: reference
Author, initial. (Year) Title of dataset. Source [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
Data from one study (Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, 2020) …

Example: reference
Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (2020) Weekly road fuel
prices. Gov.uk [online]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-
sets/oil-and-petroleum-products-weekly-statistics [Accessed 14/1/20].

E
e-book (online)
If you are looking at an e-book in PDF or other file format, where you know there is an
equivalent copy of the book in print, you can reference the book as a print
version (see instead: Book). You may find this easier. However, if you can only see an
electronic version of the book, reference using the example below, including either the DOI
(or if no DOI, use the full URL).

Format: in text citation
The dissolution of the Soviet Union made suddenly obsolete the Communist meta-
narrative (Surname, Year, Page).

Format: reference (with DOI)
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Available
from: DOI [Accessed date].

Format: reference (with URL)
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Available
from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The dissolution of the Soviet Union made suddenly obsolete the Communist meta-
narrative (Wijermars, 2018, p.14).

Example: reference (with DOI)
Wijermars, M. (2018) Memory politics in contemporary Russia: television, cinema and the
state [online]. London: Routledge. Available
from: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351007207 [Accessed 20th May 2020].

Example: reference (with URL)
Wijermars, M. (2018) Memory politics in contemporary Russia: television, cinema and the

31

state [online]. London: Routledge. Available
from: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351007207 [Accessed 20th May 2020].

e-book (via e-book reader)
Kindle books or books on e-Readers may lack page numbers. If you are going to quote from
them, you can refer to the chapter rather than the page number, if it is not available.

Note: You do not include the edition information if it is the first edition.

Format: in text citation
It is clear that there are numerous ways to eat chocolate bars (Surname, Year, Page/Chapter).

Format: reference
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title [online], edition, platform. Place of publication:
Publisher [if available]. Available from: website. [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
It is clear that there are numerous ways to eat chocolate bars (Elphinstone, 2018).

Example: in text quotation
“Always find a space where you can sit in peace and quiet before you enjoy your chocolate
bar” (Elphinstone, 2018, chapter 1).

Example: reference
Elphinstone, H. (2018) How to enjoy a chocolate bar in peace [online]. Kindle. London:
Chocoholics Anonymous. Available from: Amazon.co.uk [Accessed 14th May 2018].

e-book chapter in an edited e-book
Format: in text citation
…exploring the rights of this group of people (Surname, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Chapter author surname, initials. (Year) Title of chapter. In: Editor’s surname, initials. (ed.) Title
of book. Edition. [online]. Publisher, first and last page numbers. Available
from: website [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
…exploring the rights of this group of people (Palmisano, 2015, p.13).

Example: reference
Palmisano, G. (2015) The protection of people with Autism in the Framework of the Council
of Europe and the European Union. In: Della Fina, and V. Cera, R. (eds.) Protecting the rights of
people with autism in the fields of Education and employment [online]. Bucher: Springer, pp.
11-23. Available from: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-13791-
9 [Accessed 25/01/20].

32

Note: that ‘in’ is used to link the chapter to the book and the use of page numbers. The year
of publication is only given once.

Email
Please remember it is important to ask permission of the people involved before you use the
email in your work.

Format: in text citation
The author undertook extensive research regarding the use of our virtual learning
environment via our University app (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Sender surname, initials., Email address. (Year) Title of email [email]. Message to: Recipient’s
name. Recipient’s email address. Day sent. Time sent.

Example: in text citation
The author undertook extensive research regarding the use of our virtual learning
environment via our University app (Chapman, 2018).

Example: reference
Chapman, J. S., [email protected] (2018) Using Nile via
the iNorthampton app [email]. Message to: Howe, R., [email protected] 1st
April. 09:03.

EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions)
Format: in text citation
Legislation type and number (Year) …

Format: reference
Legislation type and number (Year) Title. Source/Official Journal Issue [Online]. Available
from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The protection of personal data is covered in Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (2016), which is
widely known as the General Data Protection Regulation.

Example: reference
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (2016) on the protection of natural persons with regard to the
processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive
95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation). Official Journal 117 [Online]. Available
from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32016R0679&from=EN [Accessed 29 May 2020].

33

F
Facebook
These are online sources and so should be referenced as such. Do consider if this is an
appropriate source to be using in an academic context.

Format: in text citation
The University of Northampton Life series documents stories from UoN students
(Surname/Organisation name, Year).

Format: reference
Surname, Initials. (Year) Title of page. Facebook [online]. Day/month post written. Available
from: URL for specific Facebook post [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The University of Northampton Life series documents stories from UoN students (University
of Northampton, 2019).

Example: reference
University of Northampton (2019) University of Northampton. Facebook [online]. 4 February.
Available from: https://en-gb.facebook.com/UniversityofNorthampton/ [Accessed 27
February 2019].

Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download)
Format: in text citation
Horror film franchises rely on not only critic reviews but audience popularity (Title, Year).

Format: reference
Title (Year) Directed by. [Format]. Place of production: Production company.
Example: in text citation
Horror film franchises rely on not only critic reviews but audience popularity (It, 2017).
Example: reference
It (2017) Directed by Andy Muschietti. [DVD]. [s.l.]: Warner Home Video.

Film (DVD: commentaries and special features)
Commentaries and special features can vary depending on the DVD region you are watching
so it is important to include that information in your reference.

Format: in text citation
Producers offer a look behind the scenes that actors and directors often see differently (Title,
Year).

Format: reference
Title of feature (Year) Title [Format]. Place of production: Production company. Region.

Example: in text citation

34

Producers offer a look behind the scenes that actors and directors often see differently
(Convention panel with producers, 2011).

Example: reference
Convention panel with producers (2011) The Walking Dead, Season 1 [DVD]. [s.l.]:
Entertainment One UK Limited. Region 2.

Film (streamed)
Format: in text citation
…based on classic works of fiction (Title, Year).

Format: reference
Title (distribution date) Directed by. Available at: Streaming service [accessed date].

Example: in text citation
…based on classic works of fiction (The Great Gatsby, 2013).

Example: reference
The Great Gatsby (2013) Directed by Baz Luhrmann. Available at: Netflix [Accessed 15
October 2019].

G
Government document
Government documents found online should be referenced as a website or webpage.
Available data may vary for these, but where possible include the following:

Format: in text citation
It was suggested that inequalities in infant mortality seemed to be narrowing in the late
1970s (Government Department, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Government Department/Institute Subdivision of department/institute (if known) (Year) Title
of document. (Name of chairperson if it is a committee.) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
It was suggested that inequalities in infant mortality seemed to be narrowing in the late
1970s (Department of Health and Social Services, 2000, p.15).

Example: reference
Department of Health and Social Services (2000) Inequalities in health: report of a research
working group. (Chairman: Sir Douglas Black.) London: DHSS.

Example: in text citation (online)
There are seven areas of learning and development that must inform educational
programmes in early years settings (Department for Education, 2017).

35

Example: reference (online)
Department for Education (2017) Statutory framework for the early years foundation stage.
GOV.UK [online]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/early-years-
foundation-stage-framework–2 [Accessed 6 Januay 2021].

H
Hansard
Format: in text citation
The then Secretary of State for Education and Science, Mr Kenneth Baker, expressed his
views quite clearly… (Name of House Abbreviated (i.e. HC or HL) Deb., Day Month Year of
debate).

Format: reference
Name of House abbreviated (i.e. HC or HL) Deb. (for Debates) (Date of debate) vol. number,
col. number [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The then Secretary of State for Education and Science, Mr Kenneth Baker, expressed his
views quite clearly… (HC Deb., 1 December 1987).

Example: reference
HC Deb. (1 December 1987) vol. 123, col. 773 [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed 1 April
2019].

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers
These include standard notes and briefing papers (see also Command Papers for White and
Green Papers).

Format: in text citation
Policy and funding arrangements for students with disabilities in post-16
education are outlined (Author, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Author, initial. (Date) Title. SN Number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Policy and funding arrangements for students with disabilities in post-16 education are
outlined (Hubble, 2012, p.3).

Example: reference
Hubble, S. (2012) Support for students with learning difficulties and disabilities in post-16
education in England. SN/SP/6341. London: House of Commons Library.

Note: In the case of briefing papers, use Briefing Paper number instead of SN Number after
the title, e.g. Briefing Paper 6899.

36

I
Image (online)
Format: in text citation
The above image highlights the role of religious orders in fighting racism across the world
(Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, initial. (Year) Image name. Source [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed
date].

Example: in text citation
The above image highlights the role of fashion in highlighting injustice across the world
(Rowielaofficial, 2016).

Example: reference
Rowielalofficial. (2016) Rowie Lal Women Aloud SS18 Protest Fashion Street style Denim
Jacket. Instagram [Online]. Available
from: https://www.instagram.com/p/BnxNzkTBUzx/?hl=en&tagged=protestfashion [Accesse
d: 1 November 2018]

Image (Creative Commons licensed)
Creative Commons images are shared for use by their creators, using one of a range of
specific copyright licences enabling others to build on, change or use the image. Please see
the website for information: https://creativecommons.org/
Creative Commons licences require attribution to the creator and a link to the Creative
Commons licence.

Example: reference
Lee, R. (2007) Education [online]. Available from: https://flic.kr/p/4ckJBL [Accessed 22
February 2019]. Licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Informal or in-house publication
Format: in text citation
An evaluation of the training summarised (Author, Date)

Example: reference
Author/Organisation (date) Title of document [format]. Place of publication: Organisation.

Example: in text citation
An evaluation of the training summarised (University of Northampton Library, 2020)

Example: reference
University of Northampton Library (2020) Library Bulletin 16, September [print
bulletin]. Northampton: University of Northampton.

37

International standards
Format: in text citation
Organisations involved in the food chain need to comply with the International Standard for
Food Safety Management (International Organization for Standardization, 2018).

Format: reference
International Organization for Standardization (Year) Title. ISO number. Place: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Organisations involved in the food chain need to comply with the International Standard for
Food Safety Management (International Organization for Standardization, 2018).

Example: reference
International Organization for Standardization (2018) Food safety management
systems. ISO22000. Geneva: ISO.

Interview
Format: in text citation
During the Second World War, women contributed to the war effort in various ways,
including working for the Fire Service (Surname, Year).

Format: Reference
Interviewee surname, initials. (Year) Title of interview. Interviewed by: Surname, initials. [type
of medium]. Day Month. Time.

Example: in text citation
During the Second World War, women contributed to the war effort in various ways
including working for the Fire Service (Barber, 2012).

Example: Reference
Barber, E. (2012) My contribution to the war effort. Interviewed by: Johnson, B. [radio]. 10th
August. 10.30.

Instagram
Format: in text citation
Despite the challenges facing them, the Gila River Indian Community demonstrated the
impact of resilience (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author, initial. (Year of post) Instagram [online]. Day/month of post. Available from: URL
[Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
Despite the challenges facing them, the Gila River Indian Community demonstrated the
impact of resilience (Obama, 2019).

38

Example: reference
Obama, M. (2019) Instagram [online]. 13 February. Available
from: https://www.instagram.com/p/Btzw89qh1YI/ [Accessed 10 April 2019].

J
Journal article
Format: in text citation
Effective patient-clinician communication has been shown to be vital for older patients and
their nurse practitioners (Surname, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Journal Title. Volume number(issue, part
number or month), pp.first and last page numbers.

Example: in text citation
Effective patient-clinician communication has been shown to be especially vital for older
patients and their nurse practitioners (Gilbert and Hayes, 2009, p.285).

Example: reference
Gilbert, D. A. and Hayes, E. (2009) Communication and outcomes of visits between older
patients and nurse practitioners. Nursing Research. 58(4), pp.283-29.

Journal article (forthcoming)
If the date of publication is unknown, omit the date.

Format: in text citation
Effective patient-clinician communication has been shown to be vital for older patients and
their nurse practitioners (Surname, Year [Forthcoming – if no year]).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) [Forthcoming]. Title of article. Journal
Title [online]. Volume number(issue, part number or month), pp.first and last page or line
numbers. Available from doi: [Accessed Date].

Example: in text citation
Effective patient-clinician communication has been shown to be especially vital for older
patients and their nurse practitioners (Gilbert and Hayes, 2020).

Or

Effective patient-clinician communication has been shown to be especially vital for older
patients and their nurse practitioners (Gilbert and Hayes, Forthcoming).

Example: reference
Gilbert, D. A. and Hayes, E. (2020) [Forthcoming]. Communication and outcomes of visits
between older patients and nurse practitioners. Nursing Research. 58(4), pp.283-293.

39

Gilbert, D. A. and Hayes, E. [Forthcoming]. Communication and outcomes of visits between
older patients and nurse practitioners. Nursing Research. 58(4), pp.283-293. Available from
doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181ac1413 [Accessed 10/12/19].

Journal article (online)
If a journal exists in both print and electronic form it is often simpler and clearer to use the
print journal format for referencing the item, regardless of which item you have viewed. If
you need to reference the electronic form, you can use one of the following formats.
Format: in text citation
Marketing communications can be done through a variety of mediums (Surname, Year,
page).

Format: reference using a URL
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Journal Title [online]. Volume number(issue,
part number or month), pp.first and last page or line numbers. Available from: URL [Accessed
Date].

Format: reference using a doi (digital object identifier)
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Journal Title [online]. Volume number(issue,
part number or month), pp.first and last page or line numbers. Available from doi: [Accessed
Date].

Journal article (no issue number; article number given)
Some online journals give an article number but no issue number or page numbers (beyond
that of the pages of the PDF).

Format: in text citation
This is explored further… (Surname, Year, p.).
Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Journal Title. Volume number(article
number), pp.first and last page or line numbers.

Example: in text citation
This is explored further… (Jones, 2018, pp.1-11).

Example: reference
Jones, A. (2018) Journal articles. Journal of Learning. 12(article 1281), pp.1-11.

L
Leaflet
Format: in text citation
Guidance is provided to support families (Author, Year)

Format: reference
Author (Year) Title of leaflet [Format and location retrieved], Date retrieved.

40

Example: in text citation
The effects of smoking are clear (Public Health England, 2018).

Example: reference
Public Health England (2018) Every cigarette starves an unborn baby of oxygen. [Leaflet] [s.l.],
Gateway number: S4L184, 14 February 2020.

Leaflet (with no date)
Format: in text citation
Author [n.d.] offers insurance products …

Format: reference
Author [n.d] Title of leaflet [Format and location retrieved], Date retrieved.

Example: in text citation
HSBC [n.d.] offers insurance products …

Example: reference
HSBC [n.d] A guide to insurance products [Leaflet obtained in Coventry branch], 11 December
2019.

Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes
It is not generally seen as good practice to cite from your tutor’s notes or slides and you
should follow up on any citations/references given by the tutor instead. However, if it is
necessary to cite your tutor’s notes or slides, follow the examples below.

Format: in text citation
The human impact upon woodlands has been investigated widely in the last 10 years
(Surname, Year).

Format: Reference
Lecturer surname, initials. (Year) Title of lecture. Module. Module code. Place. Day Month.

Example: in text citation
The human impact upon woodlands has been investigated widely in the last 10 years
(Littlemore, 2013).

Example: Reference
Littlemore, J. (2013) Ecological impacts of human disturbance in ecosystems. Land resource
management. LEM4455. University of Northampton. 11th March.

Legislation
Please see Act of Parliament.

41

Letter
Format: in text citation
Farming in Sussex during the 1950s was dominated by the landed gentry (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of letter. [letter]. Day Month.

Example: in text citation
Farming in Sussex during the 1950s was dominated by the landed gentry (Williams, 2018).

Example: reference
Williams, B. (2018) My experiences of farming in Sussex during the 1950s. [letter]. 12th July.

M
Magazine article
Format: in text citation
‘False memories’ can impact on witnesses’ recollection of a crime (Surname, Year)

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Magazine Title. Issue information, pp.first and
last page numbers.

Example: in text citation
‘False memories’ can impact on witnesses’ recollection of a crime (Hutson, 2019).

Example: reference
Hutson, M. (2019) How memory became weaponized. Psychology Today. March 2019, p.3.

Magazine article (online)
If there is a print equivalent, see instead: Magazine article.

Format: in text citation
‘False memories’ can impact on witnesses’ recollection of a crime (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Magazine Title. Issue information, pp.first and
last page numbers. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

Example: in text citation
‘False memories’ can impact on witnesses’ recollection of a crime (Hutson, 2019).

Example: reference
Hutson, M. (2019) How memory became weaponized. Psychology Today. March 2019, p.3.
Available from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/magazine/archive/2019/03 [Accessed
10 April 2019].

42

Market report
Format: in text citation
The clothing retail market in the UK was worth around £38bn in 2017 (Provider, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Provider (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher

Example: in text citation
The clothing retail market in the UK was worth around £38bn in 2017 (MarketLine, 2018, p.9).

Example: reference
MarketLine (2018) Apparel retailing in the United Kingdom. London: MarketLine.
If an analyst name has been provided in the report (such as with Mintel reports), use this
person as the author.

Map (Digimap)
Format: in text citation
A brook can be seen running alongside the northern perimeter of the Abbey grounds (Map
Publisher, Year) …

Format: reference
Map publisher (Year) Title of map section, Sheet number or tile, scale. DOI or Available from:
URL [Accessed: date].

Example: in text citation
A brook can be seen running alongside the northern perimeter of the Abbey grounds
(Ordnance Survey, 2018) …

Example: reference
Ordnance Survey (2013) Delapre Abbey. 1:2500. Edina Digimap [online]. Available from
University of Northampton Library [Accessed: 30 August 2013].

Map (Google Earth)
Format: in text citation
A brook can be seen running alongside the northern perimeter of the Abbey grounds
(Google Earth, Year) …

Format: reference
Google Earth version (if applicable) (Year data released) Image details, location, co-ordinates,
elevation. Format/Data set (if applicable) [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
A brook can be seen running alongside the northern perimeter of the Abbey grounds
(Google Earth, 2019) …

Example: reference

43

Google Earth 9.2.78.1 (2019) Delapre Abbey, Northampton, 52°13’34″N 0°52’59″W, elevation
64m [online]. Available from: https://earth.google.com/web/ [Accessed 19 February 2019].

Map (printed)
Format: in text citation
In this area a spring and earthworks are also shown (Map publisher, Year) …

Format: reference
Map publisher (Year) Map title. Sheet Number, Scale. Series. Place of publication: publisher.

Example: in text citation
In this area a spring and earthworks are also shown (Ordnance Survey, 1995) …

Example: reference
Ordnance Survey (1995) Kettering, Corby and the surrounding area. Sheet 141, 1:50
000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Map (online)
Format: in text citation
The University of Northampton Waterside campus is opposite the Northampton Marina
(Map publisher, Year).

Format: reference
Map publisher (Year of publication) Map title, location, co-ordinates or grid reference, sheet
number or tile (if available), scale (if available). [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The University of Northampton Waterside campus is opposite the Northampton Marina
(Ordnance Survey, 2019).

Example: reference
Ordnance Survey (2019) University of Northampton, Northampton, SP 75947 59862 [online].
Available from: https://osmaps.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/52.23173,-0.88946,17 [Accessed 1st
August 2019].

Museum artefact
Format: in text citation
The Panathenaic amphora (Artist, Year) held at the British Museum in London is an
example of …
Note: If no creator, use (Title, Year)

Format: reference
Artist/Creator surname, Initials. (Year) Title. [Material type]. At: Place: holding institution,
department/location (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable). Seen date.

Example: in text citation

44

The Panathenaic amphora (Kittos, ca. 365-360 BC) held at the British Museum in London is
an example of …

Format reference if artist/creator unknown:
Title. (Year) [Material type]. At: Place: holding institution, department/location (if applicable).
Identifier (if applicable). Seen date.

Example: reference
Kittos. ca. 365-360 BC. Panathenaic amphora. [Pottery]. At: London: British Museum, Greek &
Roman Antiquities. 1866,0415.248. Seen 10th April 2019.

Note: For items with no known originator/creator, start your reference with the title or
description of the object.

Example reference if artist/creator unknown:
Garment. (ca. 1850-70) [Linen.] At: London: British Museum: Africa, Oceania & the Americas.
Af2004.04.1. Seen 15th May 2001.

Museum artefact (online)
Format: in text citation
Certain objects were woven in such a way as to demonstrate the owner’s wealth (Creator,
Year).

Note: If no creator use (Title, Year)

Format: reference
Artist/Creator. Title. (Year) [Material type.] At: Place: holding institution, department (if
applicable). Identifier (if applicable). Available from: URL. [Accessed date].

Note: If no creator list alphabetically using the title.

Example: in text citation
Certain objects were woven in such a way as to demonstrate the owner’s wealth (Title, Year).

Example: reference
Garment. (19thC(late)-20thC(early)) [Silk.] At: British Museum: Africa, Oceania & the Americas.
Af2004,04.1. Available
from: https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.as
px?assetId=136439001&objectId=1666739&partId=1 [Accessed 10 April 2019].

Music (live performance/concert)
Format: in text citation
Glastonbury performances offer the opportunity to mix new material alongside old
favourites (Artist, Year).

Format: reference

45

Artist (Year of performance) Title of work/song. [Live performance/concert] Performance
venue, location. Date of performance.

Example: in text citation
Glastonbury performances offer the opportunity to mix new material alongside old
favourites (Arctic Monkeys, 2005).

Example: reference
Arctic Monkeys (2005) I bet you look good on the dancefloor. [Live performance] Pyramid
stage, Glastonbury Festival. 28th June 2013.
Band concert:
Example: in text citation
The Kings of Leon (2008) wowed the crowd at Glastonbury …

Example: reference:
Kings of Leon (2008) [Live performance]. Glastonbury Festival. 27th June.

Classical:
Format: in text citation
A highly regarded premiere (Composer, Year) …

Format: reference
Composer (Year of performance) Title of work. Performed by/conducted by. Location. [Date
of performance].

Example: in text citation
A highly regarded premiere (Taverner, 2008) …

Example: reference
Taverner, J. (2008) The Anthem. Conducted by M. Damev. Durham Cathedral: [20 October
2019].

Music (lyrics)
Format: in text citation
(Lyricist/Songwriter, Year).

Format: reference
Lyricist/Songwriter, Initial. (Year) Title of track/song [lyrics] Source [online]. Available from: URL
[Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
This song features on Marling’s album Semper Femina (2017) …

Example: reference
Marling, L. (2017) Don’t pass me by [lyrics] Lyrics.com [online]. Available
from: https://www.lyrics.com/lyric/33740208/Laura+Marling [Accessed 11 January 2018].

46

Music (musical score/sheet music)
Print:
Format: in text citation
Newer arrangements of Mozart’s concertos are popular (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Composer surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of work. Editor(s) followed by ed. or
other arrangers (note name is not surname first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Newer arrangements of Mozart’s concertos are popular (Mozart, 2009).

Example: reference
Mozart, W. A. (2009) Flute concertos: Concerto no. 2 in D, K. 314 and Andante in C, K. 315. T.
Wye (ed). R. Scott (arr.) Borough Green: Novello.

Online:
Format: in text
(Surname of artist/composer, year)

Format: reference
Artist/Composer, Initial. (Year) Title of work [score] Source [online]. Available from: URL
[Accessed date].

Format: in text citation
Newer arrangements of Mozart’s concertos are popular (Surname, Year).

Example: reference
Mozart, W. A. (1778) Flute concerto in G [score] Musopen.org [online]. Available
from: https://musopen.org/music/39127-flute-concerto-in-g-major-k-313285c/ [Accessed 20
February 2019].

Music (recorded track)
It is important to include the artists/originator of the track alongside the title.

Format: in text citation
Electro-acoustic music has developed in order to incorporate (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Artist surname, Initial. (Year of release) Title of track [format]. In: Title. Series Title and
Number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Electro-acoustic music has developed in order to incorporate interactivity (Stolet, 2002).

Example: reference
Stolet, J. (2002) Tokyo Lick [CD]. In: Music from SEAMUS 15. EAM-2006. Los Angeles: SEAMUS.

47

Music streaming
Format: in text citation
… in their song (Artist’s name / surname, Year)
Format: reference
Artist name (individual, band, orchestra etc.) (Year) Title of song/track title, Title of album (if
required) Available from: Name of streaming service [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
… in their song (Stormzy, 2020)

Example: reference
Stormzy (2020) Still Disappointed. Available from: Spotify [Accessed 14 January 2020].

N
Newspaper article
For most newspaper articles you can cite the author and year in the text of your work.
However, if it is a news article and does not attribute an author, the newspaper name is used
in the text and instead of the author in the reference list.

Format: in text citation
Newspapers have been quite negative in their coverage of Maxwell (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Journalist surname, initials. (Year) Title of news item. Name of newspaper. Day, Month, p. or
pp. [first and last page numbers].

Example: in text citation
Newspapers have been quite negative in their coverage of Maxwell (Peters, 2009).

Example: reference
Peters, R. (2009) Picking up Maxwell’s bills. Independent. 4 June, p.28.

Newspaper article (online)
Format: in text citation
Universities are witnessing a change in students’ drinking habits (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Journalist surname, initials. (Year) Title of news item. Name of newspaper. Day,
Month [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
Universities are witnessing a change in students’ drinking habits (Bearne, 2019).

Example: reference
Bearne, S. (2019) ‘I’m not spending money on that’: the rise of the teetotal student. The

48

Guardian. 19 February [online]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/uk [Accessed
22 February 2019].

O
Ofsted report
When referencing an official report, for example one undertaken by Ofsted, you should not
identify a school or setting, either by name or by quoting the Inspection Report Number.
You will also need to anonymise the title of the inspection report if this includes the name of
a person.
Format: in text citation
A school inspection report highlighted issues… (Ofsted, Year)

Format: reference
Ofsted (Year) [School X] Title of report. London: Ofsted.

Example: in text citation
A school inspection report highlighted issues… (Ofsted, 2018)

Example: reference
Ofsted (2018) [School X] School inspection report. London: Ofsted.

Online discussion list or discussion forum
Format: in text citation
The author discusses the value of using diagnostic tests to inform the planning and design of
information literacy interventions for first year undergraduate students (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Surname, initials (Year) Title of message/post. Date added. Discussion list/forum title [online].
Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The author discusses the value of using diagnostic tests to inform the planning and design of
information literacy interventions for first year undergraduate students (Stubbings, 2016).

Example: reference
Stubbings, R. (2016) Diagnostic tests. 3 August. Lis-infoliteracy [online]. Available
from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk [Accessed 19 February 2019].

Organisational documents/policies
Example: in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (NHS England and NHS Improvements, 2019).

A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school (St.
Michael’s School, 2018).

49

Example: reference
NHS England and NHS Improvements (2019) Standard infection control precautions: national
hand hygiene and personal protective equipment policy. Manchester: NHS England. Available
from: https://improvement.nhs.uk/documents/4957/National_policy_on_hand_hygiene_and_P
PE_2.pdf [Accessed 10 December 2019].

St. Michael’s School (2018) Promoting British Values at St. Michael’s Catholic School. High
Wycombe: St. Michael’s School. Available from: https://www.stmichaels.bucks.sch.uk/our-
school/our-catholic-ethos/british-values/ [Accessed 10 December 2019].

Organisational documents/policies (anonymised)
Note: Whilst you would normally name an organisation, remember
to anonymise documents from your placement organisation/institution if you have been
told to keep it confidential. If a document or policy is related to a trust or is password
protected, anonymise it. If it is open access, there is no need to anonymise.

Format: anonymised in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (Host organisation, 2017).

A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school
(Host institution, 2018).

Format: anonymised reference
Host organisation (Year) Title of policy/report. [Type of report, unless this is obvious from the
title]. Publisher (originating organisation/institution).

Example: anonymised in text citation
Hand hygiene is the most important factor for preventing infection and its transmission to
others (Host organisation, 2017).
A whole school approach to behaviour management was evident in one primary school
(Host institution, 2018).

Example: anonymised reference
Host organisation (2017) Hand hygiene policy. Host organisation.
Host institution (2018) Pupil behaviour. [School policy document.] Host institution.

P
Patent
Format: in text citation
There have been developments in the ways that cleaning heads have been designed
(Inventor surname, Year).

Format: reference

50

Inventor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Authorising organisation. Patent number [online].
Available at: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
There have been developments in the ways that cleaning heads have been designed (Allard,
Dyson & Spaven, 2006).

Example: reference
Allard, R.J.W., Dyson, J. and Spaven, J.W. (2006) A Cleaning Head. UK Patent Office. Patent no.
GB2402047B [online]. Available
at: https://worldwide.espacenet.com/patent/search/family/009958926/publication/GB240204
7B?q=ia%20%3D%20%22allard%22%20AND%20ti%20%3D%20%22a%20cleaning%20head%
22 [Accessed 10 December 2019].

PDFs
A PDF is a format rather than a type of source. You should reference PDFs according to
source type (e.g. a book chapter, a government report or a leaflet). If this is not possible, you
can reference them as an online source.

Play
Format: in text citation
Characters interact in two contrasting time periods but in the same space (Author,
Year, Act.scene: line).

Format: Reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Characters interact in two contrasting time periods but in the same space (Stoppard, 1993,
2.7).

Example: Reference
Stoppard, T. (1993) Arcadia. London: Faber & Faber.

Note: You do not include the edition information if it is the first edition.
The in-text example does not include a line number because it is referring to the whole
scene.
The date refers to the date of publication rather than the date the play was written.

Podcast
Format: in text citation
…which explores Bronte’s work (Author/presenter, Year).

Format: reference
Author/presenter surname, initials. (Year) Title. [Podcast]. Day/month posted. Available at:
URL [Accessed date].

51

Example: in text citation
…which explores Bronte’s work (Bragg, 2017).

Example: reference
Bragg, M. (2017) In our time: Wuthering Heights. [Podcast]. 28th September. Available
at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b095ptt5 [Accessed 1 August 2019].

Poem, short story or play in an anthology
Format: in text citation
“Sweet, I blame you not, for mine the fault was…” (Author, year, page)

Format: reference
Author’s surname, initials. (Year) Title of poem. In: Editor’s/compiler’s Surname, initials
(ed.) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page.

Example: in text citation
“Sweet, I blame you not, for mine the fault was…” (Wilde, 2000, p.410).

Example: reference
Wilde, O. (2000) Flower of Love. In: Brown, A. (ed.) An Anthology of Great English
Literature. London: New Ideas, p.410.

Poem in a collection
Format: in text citation
“Sweet, I blame you not, for mine the fault was…” (Surname, year, page)

Format: reference
Author`s surname, initials. (Year) Title of poem. In: Title of collection, ed. by Editor`s Initials
and Surname. Place of publication: Publisher, page.

Example: in text citation
“Sweet, I blame you not, for mine the fault was…” (Wilde, 2020, p.410).

Example: reference
Wilde, O. (2020) Flower of Love. In: The Collected Poems of Oscar Wilde, ed. by A. Milton.
London: New Ideas, p.410.

R
Radio broadcast
Format: in text citation
The impact of the Australian bush fires (Title, Date).

Format: reference
Title (Year) Transmission channel, data and time of original transmission. Available at: URL
[Accessed date].

52

Example: in text citation
The impact of the Australian bush fires (Today, 2020)

Example: reference
Today (2020) BBC Radio 4, 14 January 2020, 07.30. Available at:
https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m000d703 [Accessed 14 January 2020].

Religious text
When quoting from a sacred text e.g. the Bible, the Quran or the Torah you include the book
followed by chapter/Surah and verse, rather than a page number. For other sacred texts you
need to include a precise location, using the numbering system appropriate to the specific
text.

Format: in text citation
The names of the twelve apostles… (Book, Chapter: Verse).

Format: reference:
Full title (Year) Version (if appropriate). Translated by (if appropriate). Place of publication:
Publisher.

Example: in text citation
The names of the twelve apostles… (Matthew, 10: 2).
‘Nothing is hidden from Allah, whether on Earth or in Heaven’ (Qur’an, 14: 38).

‘Noah was a righteous man; he was blameless in his age’ (Genesis, 6:9).

Example: reference
The Bible (2000) Contemporary English Version. London: HarperCollins.
Qur’an (2013) Translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions
Limited.
The Torah: the five books of Moses (1999) Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.

S
Self-citation
Format: in text citation
The essay examined the importance of information literacy skills for undergraduate students
(Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Student surname, Initials. (Year of submission) Title of essay/assignment. [Unpublished
essay/assignment]. Module title. Module code. Institution.

Example: in text citation
The essay examined the importance of information literacy skills for undergraduate students
(Siddall, 2018).

Example: reference

53

Siddall, G. (2018) The importance of information literacy within Higher
Education. [Unpublished essay]. Information literacy. INF2244. University of Northampton.

Skype
Please remember it is important to ask permission of the people involved before you use
their personal correspondence in your work.

Format: in text citation
The differences between attending a grammar school and a secondary modern school have
been described at length in recent years (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Caller surname, initials. (Year) Skype conversation with First name Surname. Day Month.

Example: in text citation
The differences between attending a grammar school and a secondary modern school have
been described at length in recent years (Smith, 2013).

Example: reference
Smith, J. (2019) Skype conversation with Lucy Ladd. 10th February.

Sound recording (based on recorded lectures)
See also Music (recorded track)

Format: in text citation
The Victorian street had a very different audio signature (Surname/Recordist, Year).

Format: reference
Author/speaker or recordist (Year) Title [medium]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Note: Please note this is the date of publication (not the date of recording).

Example: in text citation
The Victorian street had a very different audio signature (Bergonzi, 1994).
Example: reference
Bergonzi, B. (1994) Victorian street [sound recording]. Available
from: https://sounds.bl.uk/Environment/Sound-effects/027M-1CD0126081X2-
0100V0 [Accessed 14 January 2020].

Statutory Instrument
Format: in text citation
Title of SI and Year…are concerned with the safety of children.

Format: reference
Title of SI and Year (SI number) Place of publication: Publisher.

54

Example: in text citation
The Child Safeguarding Practice Review and Relevant Agency (England) Regulations 2018 are
concerned with the safety of children.

Example: reference
The Child Safeguarding Practice Review and Relevant Agency (England) Regulations 2018 (SI
2018/789) London: TSO.

T
Telephone call
Please remember it is important to ask permission of the people involved before you use
their personal correspondence in your work.

Format: in text citation
The differences between attending a grammar school and a secondary modern school have
been described at length in recent years (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Caller surname, initials. (Year) Telephone conversation with First Name Surname. Day Month.

Example: in text citation
The differences between attending a grammar school and a secondary modern school have
been described at length in recent years (Smith, 2019).

Example: reference
Smith, J. (2019) Telephone conversation with Lucy Ladd. 10th February.

Television advertisement
Format: in text citation
In the lead up to Christmas, major UK retailers unveil their Christmas television advertising
campaigns (Company/Product, Year) …

Format: reference
Company/Product (Year) Title of advert/brief description of advert [Television advertisement].
Television channel, transmission date.

Example: in text citation
In the lead up to Christmas, major UK retailers unveil their Christmas television advertising
campaigns (John Lewis & Partners, 2018) …

Example: reference
John Lewis & Partners (2018) The boy and the piano. The John Lewis & Partners Christmas
Advert 2018. [Television advert]. ITV, 8 December 2018.

55

Television programme (broadcast)
Format: in text citation
Many sci-fi series tackle societal problems (Title, Date).

Format: reference
Series Title (Year) Episode title, series number, episode number (if applicable) [Format omit if
live]. Place of production: Television channel, transmission date and time.

Example: in text citation
Many sci-fi series tackle societal problems (Dr Who, 2005).

Example: reference
Dr Who (2005) The empty child, series 1, episode 9 [DVD]. Cardiff: BBC1, 21st May, 18.30.

Television programme (streamed content, e.g. Netflix, BBC iPlayer)
Format: in text citation
… the range of animals which eat krill (Title, Date).

Format: reference
Title (Year) Episode title, series number, episode number (if applicable). Source. [online].
Available from: URL. [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
… the range of animals which eat krill (Seven Worlds, One Planet, 2019).

Example with URL: reference
Seven Worlds, One Planet (2019) Series 1, episode 1. BBC iPlayer [online]. Available
from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/m0009tt8/seven-worlds-one-planet-series-1-
episode-1 [Accessed 31/10/19].

Note: If no URL is available for the service, use the following format:

Format: reference (no URL)
Title (Year) Episode title, series and number (if applicable). Source [online]. Available from:
Name of Streaming Service. [Accessed date].

Example with no URL: reference
Seven Worlds, One Planet (2019) Series 1, episode 1. [online]. Available from: BBC iPlayer
[Accessed 31 October 2019].

Theatre performance (live)
Format: in text citation
The importance of local theatre companies to the success and variance of cultural events in a
town cannot be underestimated (Surname, Year).
Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year of performance) Title. Directed by. Adapted by. Performance
company/performer. Performance venue, location. [Date of performance].

56

Example: in text citation
The importance of local theatre companies to the success and variance of cultural events in a
town cannot be underestimated (Braithwaite, 2013).

Example: reference
Braithwaite, E. R. (2013) To Sir, with love. Directed by Mark Babych. Adapted by Ayub Khan
Din. Northampton and Touring Consortium Theatre Company. Royal Theatre, Northampton.
[6 September 2013].

Theatre programme (print)
Format: in text citation
The director’s concept was built over a period of 3 years (Surname of author of programme if
known, Year, page).

Format: reference
Author of programme surname, initials. (Year) Title of event. Performance venue, location,
date of performance [Event programme].

Example: in text citation
The director’s concept was built over a period of 3 years (Kirkwood, 2019, p.5).

Example: reference
Kirkwood, C. (2019) Opt Out. Royal Theatre, Northampton, 9th March 2019 [Event
programme].
Note: if author of programme is not known, use company or director’s name instead.

Thesis or dissertation
Format: in text citation
The impact of digital media upon women’s self-esteem is clearly outlined in several research
studies (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author surname, initials. (Year) Title. Level. Name of awarding institution. Note: if accessed
online include URL or DOI and [accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The impact of digital media upon women’s self-esteem is clearly outlined in several research
studies (Coulson, 2009).

Example: reference
Coulson, S. E., (2009) The socio-cultural influences impacting upon young women. Ph.D.
University of Northampton.

Translated material
If the book you want to use in your assignment has been translated you need to include the
translator details in your final reference and the original language, however you do not need
to include this in the in-text citation.

57

Format: in text citation
Montaigne’s philosophical essays have been reinterpreted by a number of different
academics (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Translated from the [original language]
by Surname, initial. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: in text citation
Montaigne’s philosophical essays have been reinterpreted by a number of different
academics (Starobinski, 1986).

Example: reference
Starobinski, J. (1986) Montaigne in Motion. Translated from the French by Goldhammer, A.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Twitter
If the tweet is particularly lengthy, include the first few words, followed by ellipses.

Format: in text citation
The use of Virtual Reality resources in a Nursing Simulation Suite provides context driven
experience to students (Author, 2019).

Format: reference
Twitter handle (Year of post) Text of tweet. Source [online]. Day/month of post. Time posted.
Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
The use of Virtual Reality resources in a Nursing Simulation Suite provides context driven
experience to students (@UniNhantsNews, 2019).

Example: reference
@UniNhantsNews (2019) Second-year Advertising & Digital Marketing
students… Twitter [online]. 6 April. 09.30. Available
from: https://twitter.com/UniNhantsNews/status/1114475764978679813 [Accessed 10 April
2019].

V
Video (online e.g. YouTube, TED)
Format: in text citation
The Harvard referencing system follows the surname and year format in the text of an
assignment (Username/Author, Year).

Format: reference
Username or Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year) Title of video. Source [online]. Available
from: URL [Accessed date].

58

Example: in text citation
The Harvard referencing system follows the surname and year format in the text of an
assignment (UoWLTTU, 2008).

Example: reference
UoWLTTU (2008) Harvard Referencing with Mike Webb (Part One). YouTube [online].
Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7Laol_ALeU [Accessed 23 March 2013].

Note: When citing You Tube, always use the username as the author.

Video (subscribed content e.g. Anatomy TV, SAGE video)
Format: in text citation
Students respond positively to rewards based learning, such as sticker charts (Author, Year).

Format: reference
Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year) Title of video. Source [online]. Available from: URL/DOI
[Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
Students respond positively to rewards based learning, such as sticker charts (Sigafoos and
Evans, 2016).

Example: reference
Sigafoos, L. & Evans, J. (2016) Communicating effectively with students. Sage
Video [online]. Available from: http://dx.doi-
org.ezproxy.northampton.ac.uk/10.4135/9781544306414 [Accessed 23 May 2020].
Note: for Anatomy TV use Primal Pictures as the author.

W
Webinar
Format: in text citation
Advice was given on identifying which journal was most appropriate to
approach (Author/Speaker, Year).

Format: reference
Author/Speaker, Initial. (Year) Title of communication. Source [webinar]. Available from:
URL/DOI [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
Advice was given on identifying which journal was most appropriate to approach (Bristow,
2020).

Example: reference
Bristow, H. (2020) Journals and publishing. ACW [webinar]. Available
from: http://acw.co.uk/webinars/2020/ bristow [Accessed 23 May 2020].

59

Website or webpage
Format: in text citation
Marketing communications can be done through a variety of mediums (Surname, Year).

Format: reference
Author (Year) Title. Source [online]. Available from: website [Accessed date].

Example 1: in text citation with a named author
From assessing the economic data, some pundits think UK unemployment will fall faster than
predicted by the Bank of England (Flanders, 2013), while others……

Example 1: reference with a named author
Flanders, S. (2013) UK unemployment not following Mr Carney’s script? BBC [online].
Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24055846 [Accessed 7 October 2013].

Example 2: in text citation with a corporate author
Progress has been made in helping the general public to recognize the signs and raise
awareness of the many support networks in the UK (Stroke Association, 2012).

Example 2: reference with a corporate author
Stroke Association (2012) Our campaigns: what we achieve together. Stroke
Association [online]. Available from: https://www.stroke.org.uk/what-we-
do/ourcampaigns/what-we-achieve-together [Accessed 24 August 2016].

Note: If you are citing a source being quoted on a website, first check whether you are citing
the quoted section or the website section. If the quoted section, cite as follows:

Example: in text citation
Brown (2016) stated… (quoted by Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2016).
Reference the website as above.

Wiki
To refer to wikis we have given an example from Wikipedia below. However, you should not
refer to Wikipedia in your assignments as it does not contain any original research. Instead,
follow the references to get through to more information on your chosen topic.

Format: in text citation
There are a number of different parenthetical referencing styles, including Harvard
(Title, Year).

Format: reference
Title. (Year) Wikipedia [online]. Available from: website [Accessed date].

Example: in text citation
There are a number of different parenthetical referencing styles, including Harvard
(Parenthetical referencing, 2018).

Example: reference

60

Parenthetical referencing. (2018) Wikipedia [online]. Available from:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parenthetical_referencing [Accessed 23 March 2018].

Bibliography
Freechart (2012) Problem Solving & Programming. JFreechart [online]. Available from:
http://www.jfree.org/jfreechart/ [Accessed 19/01/12].

Hill, G. J. (2012) Problem Solving & Programming. [online]. Available from:
http://194.81.104.27/~gary/csy102/ [Accessed 19/01/12].

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th ed.
London: Palgrave.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 11th ed.
London: Palgrave.

Introduction
What is referencing?
When do you need to reference?
When is a reference not needed?
Citing
Referring to sources within your work (citing)

Citing a short quotation
Citing a long quotation
Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote
Making changes to quotations
Omitting part of a quotation
Inserting your own or different words into a quotation.
Pointing out an error
Adding your own emphasis
Citing more than one source
Citing a source with more than one author
Citing sources by same author in same year
Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in the same year
Citing a corporate author
How do I cite a source with missing publication details?
Citing a source without a given author
Citing a source without a given date

Updated versions
Abbreviating organisation names
Citing a source used within another source: secondary referencing
Citing confidential material
Compiling your reference list
References list or bibliography?

Elements of a reference
Publication information in the frontmatter of a book
Title page
Reverse title page

How do I reference if publication details are missing?
Referencing a source without a given author
Referencing a source without a given date

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary referencing
Referencing a source with more than one author
Referencing sources by the same author in the same year
Referencing confidential material
What is a DOI?
Referencing a source not listed in this guide
Example essay extract with citations and references list
Example reference formats for different source types
A
Act of Parliament
App (Mobile)
Archive material
Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art or graffiti)
Artwork (online)
Art installation/exhibition

B
Blog
Book
Book (translation)
Book volume
Book chapter (in an edited book)
Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters)
Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables
British Standards

C
Case Law
Cochrane Review
Command Paper
Computer game
Computer program
Computer software code

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students]
Header [For Computing students]
Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students]
Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students]
Method Referencing [For Computing students]
Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students]
Conference paper
Conference poster
Conversation (in person)

D
Dance performance
Dance (online)
Dataset

E
e-book (online)
e-book (via e-book reader)
e-book chapter in an edited e-book
Email
EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions)

F
Facebook
Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download)
Film (DVD: commentaries and special features)
Film (streamed)

G
Government document

H
Hansard
House of Commons and House of Lords Papers

I
Image (online)
Image (Creative Commons licensed)
Informal or in-house publication
International standards
Interview
Instagram

J
Journal article
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L
Leaflet
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Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes
Legislation
Letter

M
Magazine article
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Market report
Map (Digimap)
Map (Google Earth)
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Museum artefact
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Music (live performance/concert)
Band concert:
Classical:
Music (lyrics)
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Music streaming

N
Newspaper article
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O
Ofsted report
Online discussion list or discussion forum
Organisational documents/policies
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P
Patent
PDFs
Play
Podcast
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R
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S
Self-citation
Skype
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T
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V
Video (online e.g. YouTube, TED)
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W
Webinar
Website or webpage
Wiki

Bibliography

LET’S GET THAT BUSINESS OF YOURS DOWN ON PAPER…

A good business plan is essential for your Start Up Loan application. The process of completing it helps you to validate that your business idea is going to stack up. We’re here to guide you through the Start Up Loan application process starting with this business plan template, so you can show us why your business is going to be a success!

This document is designed to help you create a business plan that is relevant for your application for Start Up Loan funding through Virgin StartUp.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD BUSINESS PLAN?

Check out our diagram on what makes up a good business plan.
We are big believers in doing as much planning and research as possible before starting your business – knowing the market and who your customers are will dramatically increase your chances of success.
The idea, your ability to launch and operate the business, and the logistics, are all very important considerations but first you need to demonstrate that there are customers for your business and that you have access to this market.

WHERE DO YOU START?

PART 1: YOUR BUSINESS PLAN

BEFORE YOU START

Details about you and your business.

1

YOUR BUSINESS IDEA

10%

Once you have your initial idea it’s important to build up each layer to inform the next. See steps 3 – 6. As you research your market and customers you should refine and improve your idea to make sure it is something your customers want.

2

YOU

10%

We want to know all about you, the brains behind the idea. You’ll be responsible for driving your business forward so it’s important that we understand a bit more about your past experience and what gets you out of bed in the morning.

3

MARKET RESEARCH

20%

Market Research forms the base of a good business plan. You have to know what is happening in your market to make sure you understand current trends and what your competitors are doing.

4

CUSTOMER RESEARCH

30%

Once you have established where your business will sit in the larger market, it’s time to think more about your customers. This is the most important part of the plan and should be given the most attention. It’s really important that you are able to present your own information that you have gathered yourself directly from your customers.

5

MARKETING

20%

Now that you know who your customers are you can use that information to make a marketing plan that will help you launch and grow your business.

6

OPERATIONS

10%

Premises, staff, suppliers, rules and regulations – Now that you know all you can about your market and customers you can make an operational plan about how you’re going to pull it altogether.

PART 2: GUIDE TO COMPLETING

YOUR BUSINESS PLAN

For each of the 6 sections of your business plan noted above there is a handy guide jam-packed with tips, links and examples. As you work your way through Your Business Plan make sure you benefit from all this extra advice by selecting ‘Click here for more guidance’ to link you with the relevant advice for that section. You’ll spot this link throughout the plan so make sure you use it!

Remember! Completing a business plan for your business is a process of exploration that helps you to look objectively at your idea. A good business is the product of refining of the initial idea over time using what you learn through your research and experience with your customers. Listening to and learning from the people who’ll be paying for your product or service is the key to creating a successful business! Good Luck!

BEFORE YOU START

We need to grab a few details about YOU and YOUR BUSINESS

Your Name

Your Business Name

Describe your business in one sentence

Your Business Partner

(if also applying for a Start Up Loan)

Loan Amount Requested

(Minimum £500 – Maximum £25,000)

To be Repaid over
(months)

Choose an item.

Business Website

Business Social Media

Facebook:

@

Instagram:

@

Twitter:

@

Snapchat:

@

Other:

Your Living Costs
1. How do you currently pay for them?

2. How will you pay for them when the business launches?

Choose an item.

Contingency Plan
As this is a personal loan we must consider how you would be able to make the loan repayments and meet your living costs if the business was to fail or generate less income than forecast. Please describe in detail how you would do this referencing your living costs, loan repayments, and earnings ability.

1. YOUR BUSINESS IDEA
Click here for more guidance

What will your business do and what is the opportunity? Describe, in detail, the products and/or services your business will be selling, what channels you will use to sell them and who you will sell them to. What does your brand stand for? What is the business philosophy and values? Include any pictures, drawings, or links that help bring this to life.

Type your answer here

2. YOU AND WHY YOU’RE STARTING
Click here for more guidance

Tell us about yourself, where the idea came from, and how your knowledge and experience will help to make the business a success.

Type your answer here

3. MARKET RESEARCH
Click here for more guidance

3.1 The Big Picture

Describe the wider market you are planning to operate in and identify where your company will sit in this landscape, as well as any key statistics or trends to support why you have chosen this area of the market.

Type your answer here

3.2 Competitors

No matter how good your idea is, there will always be other businesses fighting for the same customers – either on price or features or quality. You need to make sure you understand your competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.

COMPETITOR 1

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

COMPETITOR 2

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

COMPETITOR 3

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

COMPETITOR 4

Click here for more guidance

Name

Type your answer here

Type of Competitor

Type your answer here

What will you be competing on

Type your answer here

Strengths of Competitor

Type your answer here

Weaknesses of Competitor

Type your answer here

Summary of How you will compete with them

Type your answer here

4. CUSTOMER RESEARCH
Click here for more guidance

This is perhaps the most important part of planning and launching your business – Validating your idea by talking directly to the people that will be buying your goods or services is the only way to ensure you are solving a problem the right way, and that there are customers willing to pay you to do it.

4.1 Test Trading

If you have undertaken any Test Trading – Describe what test/existing trading you have carried out so far. How long have you been doing this for and where? How much have you sold – provide a weekly/monthly breakdown of sales. Based on this trading what insights have you gained into your business or customers and how will you be implementing these into your business going forward? If you haven’t undertaken any test trading but are in a position to start, give it a go and come back and readdress this section.

Type your answer here

4.1.2 Direct Research |
Click here for more guidance

If you have not undertaken any test trading describe what research you have done with your potential customers, what the findings of the research were, and how you have used this to validate your idea.

Type your answer here

4.2 Evidence of Demand |
Click here for more guidance

Describe how you have you used your customer research or test trading to build up a picture of your sales forecast.

Type your answer here

5. MARKETING
Click here for more guidance

5.1 Customer Profile

Based on your market and customer research/test trading you should now have built up a good idea of the different types of customer your business will appeal to and how to reach them with your marketing activity.

CUSTOMER PROFILE 1

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

CUSTOMER PROFILE 2

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

CUSTOMER PROFILE 3

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

CUSTOMER PROFILE 4

Customer

Type your answer here

Description of Customer

Type your answer here

Why are they your Customer

Type your answer here

Channels you will use to market to them

Type your answer here

Activities within channel and related costs

Type your answer here

5.2 Route to Market |
Click here for more guidance

Whether through a personal connection, an existing network of contacts, an audience you have built up on social media, or sign-ups you have collected on your website, it’s important to demonstrate you have access to the market you plan to sell to – Who are your first customers going to be and why have you chosen this as your route to market?

Type your answer here

5.3 Launch Marketing |
Click here for more guidance

How are you planning to get the word out that you’re open for business? For each channel or medium you’re planning to use explain how and why you’re going to use it – this should be relevant to the customers you have identified in your customer profile.

Type your answer here

6. OPERATIONS
Click here for more guidance

6.1 Premises

Where will your business operate from? If your business premises plays an important part in your marketing/attracting customers (shops, restaurants etc.…) you will need to have a specific premises identified and explain why you have chosen this premises. Also explain any fit out costs that will be incurred.

If the business is less dependent on a specific location (operated from a readily available type of premises such as an office or industrial unit) you may not need to provide this but you should provide evidence of example properties that are currently available within your budget that suit your requirements.

Type your answer here

6.2 Staff |
Click here for more guidance

Are you planning to employ any staff in the first 12 months of trading? If so, make a list of them here, what their role will be, when they will start, how many hours per week they will work and what they will be paid. You should ensure the timings are accurately reflected in the Cash Flow Forecast and that 10% is added to the cost to reflect employer’s national insurance.

Role/Job Title

What will the job title be or what will the functions be?

Hours per month/week or FT

How many hours per month will the employee work if part time? Or state if full time.

Cost

What will their monthly salary, or average monthly cost be? – This should include employer’s national insurance and any other employer’s costs. If they will be paid by the hour please include the hourly rate as well.

Month Start (1 – 12)

What month in year 1 will they start assuming the month you receive the loan is month 0.

Type your answer here

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Role/Job Title

What will the job title be or what will the functions be?

Hours per month/week or FT

How many hours per month will the employee work if part time? Or state if full time.

Cost

What will their monthly salary, or average monthly cost, be? – This should include employer’s national insurance and any other employer’s costs. If they will be paid by the hour please include the hourly rate as well.

Month Start (1 – 12)

What month in year 1 will they start assuming the month you receive the loan is month 0.

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6.3 Suppliers and Third Parties |
Click here for more guidance

Make a list of all suppliers and major third parties your business will deal with throughout the first 12 months, what they will be supplying, and how they are relevant or connected to your business.

Type your answer here

6.4 Risks |
Click here for more guidance

What are the operational risks facing your business and what are you doing to mitigate the effect these will have on you and your customers.

Risk Factor

Impact on Business

Mitigation and Outcome

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6.6 Legal and Regulatory |
Click here for more guidance

What legislation and regulations apply to your business? Are there any specific licenses or qualifications required for you to operate the business either legally or for credibility? Please provide evidence of these.

Relevant Law, regulation, or qualification

Evidence of Compliance provided

Type your answer here

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7. NEXT STEPS
Click here for more guidance

If your application is successful what are the next steps you need to take to successfully launch your business, when do you need to complete them by and what is the cost associated at each stage?

Need to do

By When

Associated Cost

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Need to do

By When

Associated Cost

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GUIDE TO COMPLETING YOUR PLAN

This is your how-to guide for completing your business plan for your Start Up Loan application. We have provided you with everything you need to complete a solid first draft of your business plan, there’s advice on what to write, research and attach as well as providing handy examples and links to online content.

This Guide should be read alongside the relevant section in the business plan and we’ve included helpful links between each section in the business plan and this guide to make this as easy as possible.

You really can’t go wrong if you follow this guide!

1. THE BUSINESS IDEA

2. YOU

3. MARKET RESEARCH

4. CUSTOMER RESEARCH

5. MARKETING

6. OPERATIONS

1. THE BUSINESS IDEA Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section provide a summary, which someone who has never met you, and knows nothing about your business, would be able to use to gain a basic understanding of your proposition. We recommend finalising this section after you have completed your customer research.

Check out some great content on our website to help you with this section

Common Business Plan Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

Business Plan: How to Write an Executive Summary

Business Planning – Six Entrepreneurs Pitch their Business Idea

Include a
summary
of:

· What your business will do.
· What products and/or services the business will sell.
· What the market opportunity is –Why is there a need for it? And how will you address this gap in the market?
· Your business’s philosophy and values, and tell us about what your brand stands for and who it appeals to.
· Who your customers are.
· What you have achieved so far – Website, social media following, test – trading, existing trading etc.…
· What the business structure will be.
· Any other directors or shareholders as well as what their input into the business will be and what shareholding they have if applicable.

Supplementary attachments to provide:

1. If the look and visual impact of your business is important to its success (e.g. a clothing company, or anything reliant on design such as packaging or branding material) please attach any photos or mock ups of your products, work you have done on your brand and identity, mood boards or anything else that would help tell the story of your business visually.
2. If your business is already trading or you have carried out test trading please provide evidence of your sales in the form of bank statements or management accounts.
3. Anything else that will provide evidence of the work you have done on the business so far.

2. YOU AND WHY YOU’RE STARTING Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section tell us a bit about you and your experience in each of these areas:

· Professional
· Academic
· Entrepreneurial
· What is your motivation for starting the business

Be sure to emphasise how your knowledge and experiences are relevant to the business. What triggered the idea and why have you decided to start the business now.

Supplementary attachments to provide:

An up-to-date copy of your CV

3. MARKET RESEARCH

The Big Picture | Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section tell us all about the market you are planning to operate in. This should be formed of information and data you have gathered from reading case studies, market research reports, relevant articles and web content. Some key information would be: How big is the total market for your products or services? What are the niches within this market and how big are they? What are the trends within the market and what factors are driving these? Is this a new or mature market? If it is for a new or innovative product how does the market for this work or how will you be doing things differently? Where does your company fit into this overall landscape? The more complex your business or market, the more detail you will need to provide to make sure the proposition is clear.

Check out some great content on our website to help you with this section

How to Research Your Market When Starting

How to Validate your Idea with Google Trends

Competitors | Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section provide an analysis of:

Direct Competitors

Indirect Competitors

Substitute Competitors

Someone who is competing with you for the same customers for the same good or services.

Someone solving the same problem or fulfilling the same need as you but in a different way.

Someone who is competing with you for the same customer spend but for a different product

Example:

Coffee Shop vs Coffee Shop

Two coffee shops located in the same area will be competing for customers on the exact same basis – somewhere to sit and have a coffee/drink or to get a takeaway coffee/drink.

Example:

Coffee Shop vs Online coffee bean subscription

From a purely functional point of view, if a customer just wants coffee and is not interested in, or dislikes the experience of going to coffee shops, they may prefer to drink coffee at home, which is also more cost effective and convenient.

Example:

Coffee Shop vs Pub

If it is a sunny afternoon in the weekend people may prefer to meet friends in a beer garden over a drink rather than at the local coffee shop.

John’s Deli: P.34

Tesco: P.35

The Farm Café: P.36

Keep reading to see how to best represent your market research of your competitors.

Example of a Direct Competitor |
Click to jump back to your business plan

Name

The name of your competitor

John’s Deli

Type of competitor

What type of competitor are they and background information about them.

Direct Competitor. John’s deli has been established locally since 2001 and has a strong local clientele. John’s has a strong focus on imported goods from continental Europe and America.

What will you be competing on

What will you be competing with them on – Price? Convenience? Quality?

We will sell a lot of the same types of products at approximately the same price, and will be based on the same High Street.

Strengths of competitor

What does this competitor do well?

John’s is very well established and has additional revenue streams working as a distributor for a lot of their suppliers, supplying wholesale to local cafes and restaurants as well as retail directly to consumers. They have exclusivity of a number of high demand products.

Weaknesses of competitor

What does this competitor do badly?

While all the staff are very friendly their lack of use of technology makes it very unreliable and the service is very slow. They do not have a proper POS till system and have no website to show what they do and don’t have in stock. When you call to place a larger order it is written down on a piece of paper and called through to suppliers rather than being entered into a system to track the order – As a result orders are often not passed on or fulfilled. They also have no database of customers to use for marketing purposes instead relying entirely on “inbound” sales.

Summary of how you will compete with them

Based on these factors what will your business do, and what specific activities will you engage in to make customers choose you instead?

We will be exclusively selling products that have been sourced from within a 100 mile radius of our shop. There is a strong trend to localism as a more sustainable way to do business, and as an area rich in producers of all kinds there is a huge range of products available. This will be a strong USP compared to John’s. We will be buying directly from the producers ensuring our prices remain competitive while maintaining margins. We have our stock database linked to our website so customers can see at any time what we have in stock, and can also place orders online and track the orders. We will capture all customers email addresses so we can market new and related goods to them as well as keep them informed with what is going on with producer hosted events at the shop.

Example of an Indirect Competitor

Name

The name of your competitor

Tesco

Type of competitor

What type of competitor are they and background information about them.

Indirect Competitor. The UK’s largest supermarket chain.

What will you be competing on

What will you be competing with them on – Price? Convenience? Quality?

On the most basic level we will be competing with them on the sale of food and ingredients to cook and eat at home.

Strengths of competitor

What does this competitor do well?

Cheap and convenient – there is a large Tesco and 2 Tesco Express stores within a short walk of our shop where similar goods are cheaper, and they have more convenient locations next to the main train station and a large car park.

Weaknesses of competitor

What does this competitor do badly?

Tesco don’t have a very strong public image and are seen in some ways as the enemy of small local businesses and suppliers; While they offer some premium lines the quality of their produce is generally poor; They do not have a very good selection of organic sustainably sourced products which is becoming increasingly important to our target customers; Due to their large scale they aren’t able to offer the same niche range of products or offer any products from small, local suppliers.

Summary of how you will compete with them

Based on these factors what will your business do, and what specific activities will you engage in to make customers choose you instead?

We will deliberately be sourcing a wide range of products that Tesco and other large supermarkets don’t stock. We will focus a lot of our marketing on the local suppliers we are using, and communicating how much more of the retail price they get to keep by buying from a small local business who sources directly as opposed to large multiples who have to put constant downward price pressure on their suppliers to keep margins high to cover their large overheads. We will focus our marketing on a very small range of customers who we believe only go to Tesco or large supermarkets out of necessity rather than choice.

Example of a Substitute Competitor

Name

The name of your competitor

The Farm Café

Type of competitor

What type of competitor are they and background information about them.

Substitute Competitor – They have a very similar ethos to our business sourcing all of their products from local producers but they are a restaurant that specialise in cooked meals for breakfast and lunch. They have been open for two years and have a very strong reputation locally.

What will you be competing on

What will you be competing with them on – Price? Convenience? Quality?

We will be competing with them for the same customer’s spend – while we provide ingredients to prepare and eat at home, they use the same high quality ingredients in their meals – customers may choose to go out for a meal rather than buy the ingredients to cook at home.

Strengths of competitor

What does this competitor do well?

High quality, sustainable, Locally sourced ingredients; Good reputation and very good reviews on TripAdvisor; Provide very good service and have strong well followed social media presence.

Weaknesses of competitor

What does this competitor do badly?

Due to the size and type of their premises (large restaurant) their overheads are much higher, and as they use more fresh ingredients that spoil their waste is higher, both of which mean their meals cost well in excess of average for the area and it is definitely perceived as “expensive” whereas our products are priced in line with, or are cheaper than comparative quality products at the supermarket.

Summary of how you will compete with them

Based on these factors what will your business do, and what specific activities will you engage in to make customers choose you instead?

We will focus our marketing on the joy and advantages of cooking at home – we will provide free recipe cards that will be available in the shop as well as on our website about how to get the most of the ingredients, as well as creating short videos showing fast and easy recipes busy people can use to prepare a meal with our ingredients in under 10 minutes. We also plan to launch free cooking classes featuring our more interesting products that are hard to source elsewhere to encourage people to buy them afterwards.

Check out some more great content on our website to help you with defining your Competitors:

How to Sell Smarter than your Competitors: Skinsincere

Video on How to Beat your Competitors

Paul Munnery: How to Research and Beat Your Competitors

Business Plan How to Better Your Competitors

Click to jump back to your business plan

4. CUSTOMER RESEARCH Click to jump back to your business plan

It is essential that you have either done some test trading or spent considerable time conducting your own meaningful research with your potential customers. You need to demonstrate that your idea has been validated and that there is sufficient demand for your product or service for the business to be viable. This will help you test the original hypothesis about your business, and the feedback you get from your potential customers can provide insights you may have otherwise overlooked. It is important that you go into this process under the assumption that your idea isn’t perfect – This will help you be more objective in listening and applying what your customers are telling you.

Check out some great articles from our website:

GEW: How to Validate Your Business Idea

How Four Entrepreneurs were Funded Through Virgin Startup and Validated their Business Ideas

How to Build a Standout Startup Brand

Test Trading or Existing Business

In this section please provide as much information as possible about your trading to date and provide evidence of this in the appendices. Provide monthly, weekly, or daily sales figures depending on the nature of your business and how long you have been test/trading.

Tell us what your assumptions were going into your trading, what actually happened once you started, and what you have learned from your customers that you will be applying going forward.

Supplementary attachments to provide:

Please provide third party confirmation of sales such as bank statements. If the business has been trading for more than 12 months provide annual accounts prepared and filed by an accountant – in this instance a profit and loss statement must be included. Note that invoices and any other documents you have produced yourself will not be sufficient.

Check out some great articles from our website about how to pop-up

How to Sell Pop at a Popup Stall

Four Reasons a Pop-Up can Benefit your Business

How to Run an Amazing Pop-Up: Lexie Sport

How to Run a Pop-Up at a Train Station

How to get Customers Before You Start Selling

Direct Research | Click to jump back to your business plan

Test trading will not always be possible depending on the nature of your business. If this is the case for you it is really important that you have personally spoken to as many people as possible who are potential customers for your business. You need to gather your own information based on what is important to your business succeeding – as well as providing vital information you can use to shape your offering it will also go a long way to demonstrating you have access to the market you want to sell to.

It is important to get feedback from the people who will actually be paying you. If you are a wholesaler for example, selling to other businesses rather than direct to the consumer, as well as validating your idea with consumers that it is something they want or need, you will also need to contact the businesses you will be selling to get their feedback and find out if it is something they would potentially buy from you. In an ideal world you would be able to secure some pre-sales or letters of intent depending on how far your business has progressed. We know that as a start-up this isn’t always possible but it is very important you are able to provide evidence of some “warm leads” – that is to say customers who like your idea and want you to get back in touch with them once you are up and running with a view to being your customer or client in the future. You should use this feedback to inform your business plan to ensure the idea behind the business you are trying to launch has been validated

In this section provide as much detail as possible about what research you carried out, what your methods were, who you spoke to, and what their feedback was.

How to Build a Great Website for less than £100

How to Prove your Business Idea Will Work

Michelle Lower: How to do Market Research on a Startup Budget

How to Test a Product: Annabel Karmel

Supplementary Attachments to Provide

Please provide evidence of this having been done in the appendices – Email chains are a good example, as well as summarised survey results.

Crowdfunding |
Click to jump back to your business plan

If you can successfully raise funds, or demonstrate meaningful interest through a crowdfunding campaign, you can use this in addition to other research to demonstrate evidence of demand for your business.

How we Validated our Idea Crowdfunding: MBJ London

Evidence of Demand

In this section explain why you now feel the business idea is validated, and using the information from your test/trading or research explain the logic that will underpin the assumptions that drive your sales forecast.

Example:

An excellent example of this comes from a business we funded to open a small take-away coffee shop on the platform of a suburban train station.
To establish if there would be sufficient customers for the business to be viable we counted the number of people that use the platform between 6.30 and 8.30 from Monday to Friday over the course of 2 weeks. The results varied a lot but on average 1200 people used the platform each day between these hours. We are proposing that the business is open longer hours but have identified this as the key period that will make or break our business.

Each day we asked 100 people if they would buy a coffee or tea from a shop located on the platform if one existed. Roughly 10% of those asked said they would buy one every day, which we have assumed as 4 days/week to account for holidays etc.…

Another 10% of people said they would buy one regularly which we are conservatively estimating to be 2 days/week.

30% of people said they definitely wouldn’t buy one at all and the other 50% said they would buy one occasionally which we are assuming to be once every 2 weeks.

Weekly sales calculations:

1200 x 10% x 4 = 480
1200 x 10% x 2 = 240
1200 x 50% x 0.5 = 300

Total Sales = 1020 units x average price £2.40 = revenue of £2,400/week, or £5,000/month.

We are assuming it will take 6 months to grow to this level and that our first month’s revenue will be half of this figure.

5. MARKETING Click to jump back to your business plan

Before getting started on this section you should have a look through the great articles and videos on our website about how some of our successful applicants and other inspiring entrepreneurs market their businesses.

Virgin Startup – Examples of Successful Marketing

Social Media Strategy

Creating a Social Media Strategy

How the Meringue Girls built an instagram following of over130,000

How to use influencer marketing

How to build an email list of 80,000 subscribers

How to get influential people talking about your brand and grow leads

How to build an instagram strategy

How to grow your business with linkedin

How I market my business with facebook

New social media marketing channels for startups

Brand Awareness/Get Noticed

Market your business by breaking a guinness world record title

How to get your business noticed

How to get your startup in the media

How to do PR on a budget by Frugl

Online and Social Media Advertising

How to create a great Facebook ad

How to get started with PPC

Customer Profile

While it’s important that your business is welcoming and open to doing business with all types of customers, from a marketing point of view, it’s important to focus the time and resources you have at the specific groups your research or test trading tell you will be your best customers. If you try to market your business to everyone you may spread yourself too thin, and by diluting your messaging to try to appeal to everyone, it may end up appealing to no one. For example the language and methods you would use to market your business to a teenager would be very different to what you would use to market to someone who is 60. It would be very difficult for a start up to find a way to market effectively to both these demographics with a single marketing approach. By targeting specific customers via channels and messaging tailored specifically to them, you increase your chances of your marketing being effective.

In this section provide a detailed analysis of who your customers are and how you are going to reach them.

3 Examples of Customers for a Gourmet Burger Restaurant | Click to jump back to your business plan

CUSTOMER 1

Customer

Based on your research or test trading, provide a description of the type of customer you will be targeting

Burger Aficionados and bloggers.

Description of Customer

What lifestyle factors or behaviours does this group of people have in common, where do they shop, what do they buy, if relevant how much money do they earn

These customers are predominantly male, aged 30 – 40. They are always on the look-out for new burger restaurants so they can be the first to review and post to social media.

Why are they your Customer?

Describe how these factors are aligned with your business’ values, price, products/services and location

We will be using high quality ingredients, such as grass fed beef and artisan baked buns, and focus on the quality and provenance of our ingredients.

Channels you will use to market to them

List the channels you will be using to reach your customers. Be as specific as possible and say why you have chosen this

Instagram, Facebook – most used platforms by this demographic.

Personal Invitations – personal touch that will encourage people to attend more than a blanket email or social media post. By only sending to a limited number of people it will also be more exclusive.

Activities within channel and related costs

For each channel you have identified, describe in more detail what specific activities and strategies you are planning to use and what the associated costs will be and how regularly you will incur these costs

Instagram – we will post pictures of all of our burgers taken by professional photographers. We will use hash tags and tag relevant burger blogs and groups. Instagram is heavily used by this group.

Facebook – use Facebook ads and promoted posts to have content visible in the feeds of people who like other burger restaurants and bloggers.

Invitations – we will have a soft launch evening where we will invite prominent burger bloggers to the restaurant.

CUSTOMER 2 | Click to jump back to your business plan

Customer

Based on your research or test trading, provide a description of the type of customer you will be targeting

Foodies

Description of Customer

What lifestyle factors or behaviours does this group of people have in common, where do they shop, what do they buy, if relevant how much money do they earn

These customers are an even mix of male and female and generally aged 25 – 45. They like eating in new restaurants and follow new food trends. They could live anywhere in the city but most weekends would make a special trip to at least one new eatery they have heard about. They would prefer craft beer or real ale to lager and would more likely favour independent businesses over buying from big chains.

Why are they your Customer?

Describe how these factors are aligned with your business’ values, price, products/services and location.

As premium/gourmet burgers are a food trend at the moment, and we have a clear USP with our offering, people who are interested in, and enjoy trying new food are likely to want to try our burgers.

Channels you will use to market to them

List the channels you will be using to reach your customers. Be as specific as possible and say why you have chosen this.

Instagram, Facebook – most used social media platforms by this demographic.

Activities within channel and related costs

For each channel you have identified, describe in more detail what specific activities and strategies you are planning to use and what the associated costs will be and how regularly you will incur these costs.

Instagram – we will be using Instagram stories to show our chefs creating new burger recipes. We will post at least 5 photos of burgers to our feed per day as well as 5 funny or interesting posts such as quotes about food or our ingredients.

CUSTOMER 3 | Click to jump back to your business plan

Customer

Based on your research or test trading, provide a description of the type of customer you will be targeting

Local Residents

Description of Customer

What lifestyle factors or behaviours does this group of people have in common, where do they shop, what do they buy, if relevant how much money do they earn

They live within an easily commutable distance of the restaurant

Why are they your Customer?

Describe how these factors are aligned with your business’ values, price, products/services and location.

From a geographical point of view these are the customers who are most important to us and who we would expect to make up a large part of our customer base.

Channels you will use to market to them

List the channels you will be using to reach your customers. Be as specific as possible and say why you have chosen this.

Resident’s discount, local newspaper, loyalty card

Activities within channel and related costs

For each channel you have identified, describe in more detail what specific activities and strategies you are planning to use and what the associated costs will be and how regularly you will incur these costs.

Resident’s discount – we will have an opening party offering free burgers and fries to the first 100 customers. We will make conversation with customers and ask where they live; if they are local we will give them a key ring which will allow them to have half price meals on Monday and Tuesday night. As we see people come in regularly we will ascertain if they live locally and provide up to 100 key rings in total.

Local Newspaper – it’s very important for us to be part of the local community – we will advertise our monthly special in the local paper every week.

Loyalty Card – those that live locally are the most likely to be repeat purchasers, to encourage this we will have a loyalty card that will allow the customer to get every 10th burger for free.

Route to Market |
Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section tell us who you’re first customers are going to be. If you are planning to start a bricks and mortar business with street frontage this will be less relevant as you will have passing trade to rely on, (the launch marketing section will be very relevant to you) but if you’re business is Business to Business (B2B), or an online or office based Business to Consumer (B2C) business that can’t rely on passing trade to get noticed, you need to be more specific in identifying who your first customers will be. This could be through an existing network of contacts or through customers you spoke to during your initial research or test trading. You could have the best product or service in the world but you need to be able to demonstrate you have access to the market so you can actually sell it – you need to be able to provide evidence of these relationships (such as emails from customers who want to buy your product or service, or expressing a strong interest in doing so when the business is operational) to verify you have a viable route to market. If you are an online business you might want to think about how you can leverage existing audiences to hit the ground running, such as using popular platforms like EBay, Amazon, or Etsy, or using influencer marketing through social media.

How to Partner with a Big Brand

Launch Marketing |
Click to jump back to your business plan

How are you going to get people’s attention to let them know you’re open for business? Depending on your business and how progressed it is it may be a good idea to focus a lot of marketing activity around your launch. This could be through concentrated spend on advertising through channels you know your target customers are using, opening day discounts, or free trial periods.

If you are planning to use any of the start-up loan funds for launch marketing, use this section to provide a detailed breakdown of how much will spent on each activity.

Example:

Facebook Ads –

Launch Event – Approximately £500 for hire of venue plus welcome drinks ½ page advertisement in local newspaper – £150 per issue, run for 4 weeks = £600

Flyers – Planning to a do a flyer drop in the local area 5,000 fliers = £200 including delivery

Discounts – Free for first day promotion – total cost to us approximately £1000 worth of raw materials.

6. OPERATIONS Click to jump back to your business plan

Premises

In this section tell us where your business will operate from, why you have chosen this location and what the associated costs are.

If the businesses premises or location play an important part on the fabric of your business, such as a restaurant or retail premises requiring footfall, you should provide a full description of the premises, the surrounding area (what other types of businesses and people are nearby and what effect will this have on your business) detail of any fit-out work that needs to be carried out, and why you have chosen this location. To do this accurately you need to have specific premises in mind that is available to rent. You need to provide evidence that you have been in touch with the landlord or agent, and have an agreement in principle that you will be able to rent the premises for your required purpose, along with the term and cost of the arrangement.

If your business premises is less dependent on exact location to reach customers (such as operated from an office, or an online business that is not limited by geography to reach customers) it will be sufficient to provide examples of properties that are currently available within your budget that fit your requirements. This is not required if you are planning to operate your business from home but you should make reference to this specifically in the business plan.

Supplementary Attachments to Provide

· Email chains with landlord or agent confirming the property is under offer or that there is an agreement in principle to let the property to you.
· Heads of Terms or a draft copy of the lease.
· Mock-ups, designs, floorplans etc.… that show what you plan to do with the property.
· Quotes for any fit-out work required.

Staff | Click to jump back to your business plan

Are you planning to employ any staff in the business other than yourself? If so, provide full details in this section. Include what the role will be, what month the role needs to be filled, how many hours per week they will work or if it is full time, and how much they will be paid.

Role/Job Title

What will the job title be or what will the functions be?

Hours per month/week or FT

How many hours per month will the employee work if part time? Or state if full time.

Cost

What will their monthly salary, or average monthly cost, be? – This should include employer’s national insurance and any other employer’s costs. If they will be paid by the hour please include the hourly rate as well.

Month Start (1 – 12)

What month in year 1 will they start assuming the month you receive the loan is month 0.

General Manager

Full-Time

Salary of £35k/year, total cost of £38,710 including employer’s National Insurance

Month 1

Sales Assistant x 4

2 x part-time working approximately 20 hours/week, 2 x FT.

Part time employees will get £10/hour and full time employees will be paid a salary of £20k to £25k depending on experience. Including employer’s NI this will cost up to £27,330 per FT sales assistant.

1 full time to start in Month 1, 1 part time to start in month 3, and an additional full time and part time to start in Month 6

Suppliers and Third Parties |
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To ensure you are getting the best prices from your suppliers and service providers, and that your cash flow forecast is as accurate as possible, you should have contacted a number of these parties to get quotes and discuss payment terms – take this into consideration when preparing your cash flow forecast.

In this section make a list of the major suppliers and service providers you will use, what you will buy from them, at what prices, and what the payment terms will be. Focus on larger costs that will have a material effect on your cash flow.

Risks |
Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section identify key operation risks to your business, what the impact will be, and what steps you are taking, or have taken to mitigate the effect of these risks.

Risk Factor

Impact on Business

Mitigation and Outcome

Reliant on one distributor for 80% of all products

If there was a problem with delivery or unfavourable change in terms it would have an effect across all of our products due to how much we purchase from this supplier. We would have to increase prices or reduce margins to remain cash flow positive. In the instance of a delivery problem we may not be able to open on the effected days.

We have built relationships with 3 other suppliers who between them can supply everything we get from our main supplier. They are located very close to us and have provided assurances around their ability to deliver at very short notice – this service costs more which is why we do not use them as our main suppliers, but would enable us to stay open and limit financial and reputational damage of being closed for periods of time.

Legal and Regulatory |
Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section provide details of legislation and regulations that apply to your business. Are any specific licenses or qualification required for you to operate the business either legally or for credibility?

Relevant Law, regulation, or qualification

Evidence of Compliance provided

A3 Premises use (restaurant)

Planning permission granted for change of use – letter from local authority attached

Personal Alcohol License

License attached

Premises License

License attached

Food Hygiene Level 2

Certificate attached

Supplementary Attachments to Provide

Evidence of your compliance with each of the legal and regulatory requirements you have identified as applying to your business.

Next Steps |
Click to jump back to your business plan

In this section provide detail and timelines for each step you need to take from when you get the loan to achieve your first sale.

Need to do

By When

Associated Cost

Sign lease and pay deposit

Day loan is drawn down (end of March)

Deposit – £4,000
Legal costs – £1,500

Start shop fit-out

1 April

£5,000

Buy Equipment

End of fit-out circa 30 April

£2,500

Contact web developer to build website

Day loan is drawn

£1,500

Contact mailing list about launch party

30th May

£0

Send invites to local social media influencers about pre-launch

15th April

£1000 – cost of pre-launch party.

Buy stock

15th April – 30th April

£5,500

CONGRATULATIONS – YOU’VE COMPLETED

YOUR BUSINESS PLAN TO APPLY FOR A

START UP LOAN FROM VIRGIN STARTUP!

You’re one step closer to turning your business idea into a reality and it’s a big step we want to celebrate with you – share your progress with the startup community and tweet us @VirginStartUp.

If you have any questions about the business plan email [email protected] and one of the Virgin StartUp team will be happy to help you.
Also, make sure you check out www.virginstartup.org for even more advice and inspiration.
Good luck and remember…

“BUILDING A BUSINESS IS NOT ROCKET SCIENCE; IT’S ABOUT
HAVING A GREAT IDEA AND SEEING IT THROUGH WITH INTEGRITY.
THAT GOES FOR VIRGIN GALACTIC TOO, WHICH IS ROCKET SCIENCE.”

RICHARD BRANSON, FOUNDER VIRGIN GROUP

The Entrepreneurship Report
Opportunity Analysis
MKTM033-SPRAG

NAME Pawanrat Meepian
UON ID 22427989

SUBMISSION DATE 18/4/2022
MODULE AS01 Opportunity Analysis

WORD COUNT 1600
LECTURER Dr. Lim Keai

1

Executive Summary
Sweet MoM Foods is a food business that will engage in sale of ready-made food for

the consumers. The company focuses on the young male and female customers especially

those in colleges and employed who have little to no time to make home-made delicacies.

The growth of the fast foods industry brings a major form of competition in the industry but

Sweet MoM Foods differentiates itself as a restaurant that understands the health needs of the

consumers and hence makes healthy meals that can be delivered or have the customers walk

in and have their breakfast, lunch, or dinner (Liu et al., 2022). The company will focus on

selling different types of dishes giving the customers an opportunity to call and book their

best delicacy to provide all the customers from different parts of the world to experience

good food and bring home closer to them.

The company understands that there is a need to provide delicious foods that meets

the expectations of the customers. At the same time, there is need for effective order

management in order to prevent delays. Thus, there is need to hire professional chefs who

will provide the delicacies as demanded by the customers (Rajput et al., 2020). There is also a

need to hire a technical team that will manage the online order system, the management of

the company website and the social media management. The target customers are the young

people in the age of 18 years to 40 years. These are customers who have the time to eat out or

order their meals since they are working or lack large families.

External Environmental Analysis

Political Factors

Political factors will play a crucial role in enhancing the opportunities for Sweet MoM

Foods or threaten its operations. The UK health and hygiene regulations are strict and it is

important to adhere to them failure to which the business will face legal consequences

(McCarty et al., 2022). The breaching of the rules and regulations can lead to loss of money

and damages that are caused to the brand reputation. The other laws and regulations affecting

2

the business is the employment laws which stipulate the need for equality and pay regulation.

The business must adhere to these laws for effective performance. Other political factors

affecting the business include the government tax policies. High taxes will affect the revenues

and the actual profits made in the business.

Economic Factors

The performance of Sweet MoM Foods can skyrocket or dwindle depending on the

economic conditions. The effects of COVID-19 includes the slowdown in the economy

(Gursoy et al., 2020). The reduction in the income in the targeted customers can result to low

sales or poor performance in the long run. COVID-19 also increased unemployment and hence

this reduces the number of customers and the effective sales from the business. UK also charges

high rental fees and this will affect the profit margins.

Social Factors

The customer behaviours have changed with most customers being aware of the health

impacts of fast foods. Thus, there is a rising demand for health meals that the customers can

access easily (White et al., 2020). Sweet MoM Foods will cater for the local needs of the UK

population and those that come from other cultures. The change in customer behaviours and

focus on foods with low carbohydrates and beverages which are low in sugar will increase the

market standings for the business.

Technological Factors

Sweet MoM Foods relies on technology to increase its market share within London.

The business will thus adopt advanced technology to increase orders, marketing, and enhance

public relations (Janssen et al., 2018). The use of advance ordering services is meant to attract

more customers. At the same time, the use of chat bots is important to enhance the responses

given to the customers and avoid delays in their enquiries when it comes to orders. However,

these technologies can render some of the employees redundant.

Environmental Factors

Sweet MoM Foods will take several steps to respond to the environmental concerns.

The customers are already aware of the effects of global warming. Thus, the restaurant will

have recycling g units to ensure the plastics and the cups are recycled and hence avoid their

environmental impacts (Janssen et al., 2018). There are also environmental laws and

3

regulations in UK that must be adhered to. The business will thus have a measure to determine

the greenhouse gas emissions and the daily plastic use.

Legal Factors

The UK has an established legal system. Thus, Sweet MoM will have to adhere to

established laws including the payment of the local councils. It has also to adhere to the food

safety standards and hygiene regulations (McCarty et al., 2022). The relaxed regulations make

it easier to operate in a market. However, these laws can be a source of major legal disputes

which affects the operations of the business and the profits.

Industry Analysis

Industry Rivalry

Sweet MoM Foods will face high competition in the restaurant industry. There are high

number of firms in the industry especially dealing with fast foods (Nguyen et al., 2018). There

is also high aggressiveness of the firms as they try to attain a better market share. These factors

coupled with low switching costs where the restaurants can change from fast foods to the sale

of the healthy food menus, the company will experience high competition.

Customers Bargaining Power

The restaurant faces high customer bargaining power due to the low switching costs.

The customers can easily change from one restaurant to another. There are also a large number

of providers who have the ability to meet the needs of the customers (Ashby, 2018). The

customers can demand for price changes because there are available substitutes to help them

satisfy their needs.

Suppliers Bargaining Power

The suppliers in Sweet MoM Foods have weak bargaining power. This is because there

are a large number of suppliers and hence it is possible to change from one to another. There

is also low forward vertical integration of the suppliers hence they do not have control in the

distribution network (Nguyen et al., 2018). There is also high overall supply of the raw

materials used in the restaurants.

Threat of Substitutes

4

The substitutes are the alternatives that the customers have for the goods and services

provided by the restaurant. There is high substitute availability due to availability of foods from

artisanal food producers and the fast foods (Ashby, 2018). The consumers can also make their

meals at home. It is easy to shift from the Sweet MoM Foods to other restaurants available in

London. Thus, the company will have to use approaches such as high product quality to ensure

the customers remain attracted.

Threat of New Entrants

New entrants can impact Sweet MoM Foods negatively due to reduction in the financial

performance and market share. The low switching cost increases the probability of new entrants

in this industry. The capital required is also low and hence new entrants can easily enter the

market (Ashby, 2018). Many small and medium businesses. However, lack the resources to

create a strong brand that can match that of the existing ones.

Key People and Skills

The business requires people with different skills including technical skills. The first

type of employees required are the chefs who are the most important in ensuring the recipes

are effectively delivered in all cases (Janssen et al., 2018). The chefs need to have an

understanding of regional foods and recipes in order to match the requirements in the business.

The second type of skills is the accountants. These are the people responsible for ensuring the

business operations are all well managed financially. These are important people in enhancing

performance. There is also a need for marketers. These are people with different skills who are

responsible for ensuring the company brand is enhanced and that they reach new consumers on

the products being sold. These should be people with social media management skills because

it will be a major marketing approach used (Theis et al., 2018). The IT Technician will be

responsible for managing all the aspects related to the websites, the cybersecurity measures,

and updating the software patches to prevent the occurrence of successful attacks in the

business.

Financial Feasibility

The start-up cost for the business will be moderate because it will start as a food outlet

that can accommodate 50 customers at a single time while at the same time making online

sales. The initial costs will include the cost of renting a space for the business, the equipment

necessary for the kitchen and the beverages section, the cost of licenses and that of the

5

marketing (Graham et al., 2020). In total, the initial cost will be approximately 520,000 Euros.

This will be funded from the personal savings, family loans, and the loans from the financial

institutions within UK. Estimates are as shown in Appendix 1.

Although the initial costs are high, it is expected that the business will be able to make

sufficient amount of money in order to break even within the shortest time possible. The sales

forecast for the next one year are shown in appendix 2. These sales show that as the customers

keep knowing the benefits of the Sweet Mom Foods and their recipes, they will be able to make

increase their purchases. There are also high expectations of repeat customers. The business is

expected to break even in one year.

References

Ashby, A. (2018). Developing closed loop supply chains for environmental sustainability:

Insights from a UK clothing case study. Journal of Manufacturing Technology

Management. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JMTM-12-2016-

0175/full/html

Graham, F., Barker, M., Menon, M., & Holdsworth, M. (2020). Acceptability and feasibility

of a café-based sustainable food intervention in the UK. Health Promotion

International, 35(6), 1507-1518. https://academic.oup.com/heapro/article-

abstract/35/6/1507/5815616

Gursoy, D., & Chi, C. G. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on hospitality industry:

review of the current situations and a research agenda. Journal of Hospitality

Marketing & Management, 29(5), 527-529.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19368623.2020.1788231

Janssen, H. G., Davies, I. G., Richardson, L. D., & Stevenson, L. (2018). Determinants of

takeaway and fast food consumption: a narrative review. Nutrition research

reviews, 31(1), 16-34. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/nutrition-research-

reviews/article/determinants-of-takeaway-and-fast-food-consumption-a-narrative-

review/84FCD3376168AF5B70FBC51B4799ECEF

Janssen, H. G., Davies, I. G., Richardson, L. D., & Stevenson, L. (2018). Determinants of

takeaway and fast food consumption: a narrative review. Nutrition research

reviews, 31(1), 16-34. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/nutrition-research-

reviews/article/determinants-of-takeaway-and-fast-food-consumption-a-narrative-

review/84FCD3376168AF5B70FBC51B4799ECEF

Liu, R., Sun, Y., & Wang, J. (2022, March). Influential Factors of Sales Revenue in the Fast-

Food Industry. In 2022 7th International Conference on Financial Innovation and

Economic Development (ICFIED 2022) (pp. 2832-2838). Atlantis Press.

https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/icfied-22/125971976

McCarty, K., Paranthaman, K., Jenkins, C., Sedgwick, J., & Crawley-Boevey, E. (2022).

Lessons learned from the investigation and management of an outbreak of Shigella

flexneri associated with a restaurant in London, 2019–2020. Public Health, 205, 130-

132. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033350622000439

Nguyen, Q., Nisar, T. M., Knox, D., & Prabhakar, G. P. (2018). Understanding customer

satisfaction in the UK quick service restaurant industry: The influence of the tangible

attributes of perceived service quality. British Food Journal.

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/BFJ-08-2017-

0449/full/html?skipTracking=true&utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_

campaign=British_Food_Journal_TrendMD_0&WT.mc_id=Emerald_TrendMD_0

Rajput, A., & Gahfoor, R. Z. (2020). Satisfaction and revisit intentions at fast food

restaurants. Future Business Journal, 6(1), 1-12.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s43093-020-00021-0

Theis, D. R., & Adams, J. (2019). Differences in energy and nutritional content of menu

items served by popular UK chain restaurants with versus without voluntary menu

labelling: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 14(10), e0222773.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222773

White, M., Aguirre, E., Finegood, D. T., Holmes, C., Sacks, G., & Smith, R. (2020). What

role should the commercial food system play in promoting health through better

diet?. Bmj, 368. https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m545

Appendices

Appendix 1: Start-up Cost

Cost Type Euros

Annual Rental cost 200,000

Furniture 800,000

Kitchen equipment 700,000

Initial stock 400,000

Licenses 100,000

Employees’ salaries 1,500,000

Start-up marketing expenditure 150,000

Start-up operating expenses 450,000

Total start-up cost 4,400,000

Appendix 2




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