PPT + Speakers Notes
From the ancient and early influencers lecture, choose a leader and prepare a 5-minute talk outlining what they were known for. Provide a summary of the leader’s accomplishments. In your presentation address the following questions:
What made them an influential leader?
What great deeds or thoughts are they remembered for?
What aspects of leadership were missing?
How is their worldview different than your own?
Do you believe they were a good or bad leader and why?
Historical Concepts and Theories of Leadership
LDRS 302
“everything rises and falls on leadership.”
“Everything rises and falls with leadership.”
Learning Activity:
Take some time right now to think about some leaders you know and write down in point form some of the demands that you think they carry.
What are some expectations that people (or you) place on them?
Leadership Is All About Trust
“What do you think is required of a leader?”
The ability to recruit people to an idea or a project.
The ability to plan ahead.
The ability to manage conflict.
The ability to hire and fire well.
The ability to gel people into a high-performing team.
The ability to see beyond the day’s crisis.
The ability to think and plan broadly – to understand all the implications of a decision.
Strong political skills to cope with conflicting ideas and desires of the people they lead.
To help others do better work.
“What do you think is required of a leader?”
What was noticeably missing was:
A leader must be ethical.
Administrative challenges:
planning ahead
defining the organization’s objectives or goals,
establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals,
planning to integrate and coordinate activities,
what must be done and how it is to be done.
Administrative challenges:
Administering people has become much more complex in the past century.
Legal processes must be followed,
practices must be refined.
Early Influencers – Ancient Jewish
Moses; called to lead the people of Israel out of Egypt into the promised land. Became a great leader and administrator.
Joseph:demonstrates great planning by establishing a 14 year national plan.
Nehemiah; classic story of planning and putting the plan to work.
David; military leadership and kingship.
Solomon; gifted leader, administrator and king.
Great Pyramid of Cheops
(AKA The Great Pyramid of Giza)
13 Acres
2.3 million stone blocks, each weighing approximately 2.5 tons and consists of limestone and granite
over 100,000 men
Approximately 20 years
Egypt: Ramesses II (1303 BC – 1213 BC)
Known as the greatest pharaoh of ancient Egypt, said to have started the New Kingdom in which Egypt conquered surrounding kingdoms and expanded their power
Built many cities including the new capital city of Pi-Ramesses
Built many temples and monuments
Known throughout modern culture from poems such as Ozymandias (Shelley) and portrayals of the ancient Jews under the Egyptian slavery.
59 miles S/W of Bagdad
Code of Hammurabi (1790 BC)
Minimum wage
The most significant contribution to management thought from Babylon is probably the Code of Hammurabi
59 miles S/W of Bagdad
Code of Hammurabi (1790 BC)
Minimum wage
The most significant contribution to management thought from Babylon is probably the Code of Hammurabi
Nebuchadnezzar (605-562BC)
Part of the offshoot of the Assyrian empire that became Babylon
Conquered much of the middle east including the lands of modern day Iraq, ancient Israel, ancient Eygpt
Focused on educating conquered people through assimilation
Sun Tzu (544-496BC):
Military general/strategist/philosopher.
Authored “The Art of War”(philosophy of war).
Focused on alternatives to war such as strategies, spying, making alliances etc…
“how do we live the good life? How do we nurture our souls?”
470 BC – 399 BC
Student of Socrates
He believed that the best way to organize society was to divide its members up into three main groups:
Farmers, artisans and traders who supply the economic needs of the community
Military Guardians
Philosopher Guardians
425 BC – 348 BC
Aristotle was a contemporary of Plato, although younger. He argued that rather than the academy, the foundation for a good community was the household. He had a hierarchy of positions in the household:
Husband and wife
Parents and children
Master and slave
384 BC – 322 BC
Monarchy or Tyranny (the rule of one)
Aristocracy or Oligarchy (the rule of the few)
Polity or Democracy (the rule of the many)
Had a distinguished career in the Roman Empire He first distinguished himself in the military and then later as a statesman.
repaired the aqueducts,
cleansed the sewers,
prevented private persons drawing off public water for their own use,
ordered the demolition of houses which encroached on the public way,
built the first basilica in the Forum near the *Curia.
Cato the Elder
234 BC – 139 BC
*The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted
Political Structures
Ecclesia* was the official term for the lawful democratic assembly of the Greek self-governing city-state.
Traditionally comprised two bodies.
The smaller of the two was called “the council,”
the larger, including all the adult male citizens of the city was described simply as “the people.”
*The term Ecclesia (sometimes Ekklesia) is commonly used in the New Testament for Church
Rome: Julius Caesar (100-55BC)
Roman General with a history of military successes.
Entered Rome as a conquering leader
Took power from the senate and made himself emperor of Rome to be worshipped and obeyed
Murdered in the senate my Brutus and several other senators because of his overreach for power and authority
Rome: Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43BC)
Cicero was a lawyer, historian, philosopher and statesman
Tried to bring Rome back to an era of republic and away from the dictatorship of Caesar
Wrote 90% of the remaining Latin texts that we have
His letters are credited with having inspired the renaissance of the early 1400’s
Roman Colony
The Roman colonies and municipia adopted a hierarchy of senior positions in civic leadership. Progression up this ladder was highly valued.
offices were social distinctions
not a job-related hierarchy
“social hierarchy”
between the ages of 25 and 55,
a resident of the community,
have moral integrity,
be significantly wealthy
Roman Colony – Religious Leaders
A priest was an especially honorable role in the Roman system, and such appointments were conferred on individuals in response to their loyalty.
ranked in a hierarchy of importance
senior priests – responsible for a whole province.
priests were often locked in intense rivalries
Roman Colony – Religious Leaders
The lesson here is that significant wealth was a necessary prerequisite for civic leadership.
leadership had a strong component of self-interest, where honour and reputation were highly desired.
Such leaders enjoyed a high profile in their local communities.
The rise and fall of the Roman Empire
The rise and fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire covered the area occupied by the following modern-day countries: England, Wales, France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Hungary, Rumania, Turkey, Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, Israel, Lebanon, Tunisia and parts of Germany, the Soviet Union, Morocco, Algeria, Syria and Egypt.
Reflection/Discussion Question
In the Roman Colony, leaders, or members of the court, were to be:
Local elites
Be freeborn
Between the ages of 22 – 55
Community resident
Moral integrity
From the members, two were chosen as unpaid chief magistrates (Judges). They would have to “buy into” that position, but the recognition was worth the financial output.
Does money alone influence others? Please explain how you feel about this.
Leadership in the New Testament Era Jewish Communities
In Acts, we learn of Paul travelling around looking to preach in Jewish Synagogues.
Usually got tossed out
Some believed his message and followed him
These Jews formed part of what was known as early Christianity.
Leadership in the Jewish Synagague
The ancient Jewish synagogue was more than merely a religious institution. It also served a number of important, and educational functions., educational, court sessions and social activities. It was concerned with the whole spectrum of community needs and served much like a community centre.
Court Sessions
Archisynagogos – Greek title used by Jewish synagogue leaders in most of the Roman Empire.
Leadership in New Testament Era Christian Communities
Corinth was a first-century Roman colony
Paul’s letter to the church in Corinth:
“not many of you were wise by human standards, not many were powerful, not many were of noble birth.”
I Corinthians 1:26
The Vatican
Known as the Vatican City. It is surrounded by Rome.
Most Popes live there but the current one has decided to live in a much smaller cottage off-sight.
Pope will gather on his balcony and speak to the parishiners below.
Today, they put out chairs for the service.
Still have walls around the Vatican.
The Vatican is its own city/country.
St Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD)
Catholic monk, priest, theologian, and philosopher
Known for his Confessions, On Church Doctrine, and City of God
Grace was essential to faith, belief in free will while also developed the idea of original sin or the sinful nature of mankind
St Benedict (480-543AD)
Developed the Benedictine Monastic order
Rule of Saint Benedict
Pope Benedict XVI (2009) said: “with his life and work St Benedict exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture“
Early Influencers – Middle Ages – 19th Century
Marco Polo
1254 AD – 1324 AD
The Renaissance
The Renaissance was a time of discovery, reaching out, and exploration.
Born in Venice
Traveled and left detailed notes of his explorations to China
Early Influencers – Middle Ages – 19th Century
Middle Ages are often referred to as Medieval Period or the Dark Ages
While sometimes considered a period of little technological/cultural advancement, there is ample evidence of artistic, scientific, philosophical, and religious development and growth
Referred to as the Dark Ages as a period of “unenlightenment” under authoritarian despots, warlords, barons and kings.
Most of the lower classes were vassals of the king. They were not slaves, but were often treated similarly
Lasted from the fall of Rome until the Renaissance and Reformation of the late 1400’s
Middle Ages: Charlemange (748-814 AD)
United the Frankish kingdoms under one rule
Hoped to create a new enlightenment and restore the glory of the Roman Empire (Often called the Carolingian Renaissance)
Worked with the Pope in Rome and was crowned emperor of the New Holy Roman Empire
Developed code of laws,
Missi Dominici – Lords Messangers to spread the law and ensure fair treatment of all people
Middle Ages – William The Conqueror (1028-1087)
French King conquers much of England
Provides universal protection against viking invaders
Brings French language, culture, cuisine, art, and law to England
Seen as one of the founders of Feudalism, imposing a feudal contract where he gave land to his loyal subjects in exchange for their Fealty
Early Influencers
He lauded the behaviour of past rulers, especially Cesare Borgia, who was infamous for his poisonings, betrayals, and cruelty.
Authored the book “The Prince” Farmers, artisans and traders who supply the economic needs of the community
learn how not to be good,
use this knowledge or not to use it according to necessity
Nicolo Machiavelli
1429 AD – 1527 AD
Queen Elisabeth I (1533-1603)
Created stability in England after her father’s chaotic reign
Strong female leadership in a position that had always been male dominated
Created moderate laws that provided religious tolerance for Catholics and protestants alike
Shattered the Spanish Armada and permitted exploration and conquest of new lands in the Americas
Francis Bacon 1561 –1626AD
Philosopher, Lawyer, Lord Chancellor of England
The father of empiricism or the scientific method through the use of inductive reasoning and observation he created a framework for modern science
Legal advisor to Queen Elisabeth I
Thomas Hobbes (1588 –1679AD)
Father of modern political philosophy
Leviathan – Logical reasoning in all writings where a premise was followed by evidential reasoning even in social sciences
Justification of government is the need for strong morality to prevent chaos and the destructive nature of man.
The passions that incline men to peace are: fear of death; desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living; and a hope by their industry to obtain them. And reason suggesteth convenient articles of peace upon which men may be drawn to agreement
John Locke (1632 –1704AD)
Enlightenment philosopher dedicated to the idea of empiricism in research
Political theory of Social Contract where government is given authority by the people
First Liberalists-Natural Rights, Equality under the law, freedom from oppression
Two Treaties of Government – The justification of the rights of mankind and the rejection of patriarchal authoritarianism
Immanuel Kant (1724 –1804AD)
Father of post-modern philosophy
Reality and experience is unique to the individual
Tried to understand the idea of universal morality when all experience life differently
Every object has perspective, even the tree that falls in the forest
Universal democracy will bring peace and understanding
Fredrich Nietzsche (1844 –1900AD)
German philosopher
Nihilism – life is meaningless so enjoy it
Relativism – Truth is relative to one’s perspective
Famous for saying God is Dead, in reference to the loss of a universal morality that society previously held under the church. With the loss of the authority of the church and a consistant understanding of morality/truth, it became relative to each person’s perspective and thus inconsistant
Early Influencers – Scotland
The “real price of everything… is the toil and trouble of acquiring it”, thereby explaining that other costs besides wages affect the price of a commodity
father of modern economics
pin factory
The division of labour
Adam Smith
1723 AD – 1790 AD
Early Influencers – Germany
Marx lived during the peak of the Industrial Revolution (1750-1890), specifically during what’s been called the Second Industrial Revolution
Class division between:
Proletarians – those who must sell their labour, (have nots)
Bourgeois – those who buy the labour. (haves)
wrote Communist Manifesto – The goal was to have an economic system that does not allow for the roles required in the capitalistic division of labour as described by Adam Smith.
Predicted that the labourers would overthrow the greedy capitalists
Karl Marx
1818 AD – 1883 AD
Next week in LDRS 302
Classical Management Theory (Part 1)
Fayol’s Administrative Theory
Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
Week 2 Forum (DUE Before next class)
This week please respond to 2 people’s forum posts from last week.
I will do a quick review of what a substantial post is.
Make sure you are adding to the discussion not just summarizing

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