The student must then post two replies of at least 250 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week. For each thread, students must support their assertions with at least two scholarly citations in Turabian format. Each reply must incorporate at least two scholarly citations in Turabian format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include the course readings and/or scholarly sources, such as books and peer-reviewed journal articles.
Travis Oum,
According to the article, Grady defines “Interest Group Liberalism” as Interest group liberalism is Theodore Lowi’s term for the clientelism resulting from the broad expansion of public programs in the United States, including those programs which were part of the “Great Society.” [1] Interest group, also called particular interest group, advocacy group, or pressure group, is an association of individuals or organizations, usually formally organized, that, based on one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favor. The common goals and sources of interest groups obscure the fact that they vary widely in their form and lobbying strategies both within and across political systems.
Furthermore, the interest group liberalism can impact any kind of debate regarding public policy because Liberal governments cannot achieve justice. After all, the definition of justice under liberalism is unclear and difficult to use. The whole idea of this justice is absurd. [2] Although this environment is necessary to all political climates, a nation cannot survive in this environment alone or often because it often evolves into an environment of distrust and an unhealthy level of political cynicism.
Nevertheless, since the 1960s, when Lowi authored this text because he believed we were in a state of political crisis, interest groups have grown exponentially. This is due to growth in overall economic developments and the specific interests of citizens willing to take an active role in political processes. Interest group ideology has thrived on inadequate planning and overextension. [3] Effective government requires formalities and moral legitimacy. Lowi argues that if well-moneyed interests do not grow to exercise an unjustly disproportionate amount of political capital, interest groups should be welcomed in American politics as a means by which the average citizen can enjoy a tremendous amount of political efficacy. Lowi points out that nearly every area of government activity.
Interest-group liberalism ideology has thrived on inadequate planning and over extension. Effective government requires formalities and moral legitimacy. Lowi argues that if well-moneyed interests do not grow to exercise an unjustly disproportionate amount of political capital, interest groups should be welcomed in American politics as a means by which the average citizen can enjoy a more significant amount of political efficacy. [4] According to the Bible, “Whoever sows injustice will reap calamity, and the rod of his fury will fail. Whoever has a bountiful eye will be blessed, for he shares his bread with the poor. Drive out a scoffer, and strife will go out, and quarreling and abuse will cease. He who loves purity of heart and whose speech is gracious will have the king as his friend. The eyes of the Lord keep watch over knowledge, but he overthrows the words of the traitor.”
[1] Spitzer, Robert J. “Liberalism and Juridical Democracy, or What’s Interesting about Interest Group Liberalism.” PS: Political Science and Politics 23, no. 4 (1990): 572–74.
[2] Grady, Robert C. “Interest-Group Liberalism and Juridical Democracy.” American politics quarterly. 6, no. 2 (1978): 213–236.
[3] Grady, Robert C. “Juridical Democracy & Democratic Values: An Evaluation of Lowi’s Alternative to Interest-Group Liberalism.” Polity 16, no. 3 (1984): 404–22.
[4] Proverbs 22:8-16.
Patrick Katsaris
Sep 27, 2021 3:02 PM
Interest group liberalism can be defined as a system that “seeks to justify power by avoiding the law and by parceling out to private parties the power to make public policy.”[1] This system can be characterized as a liberal endeavor that is optimistic about the function of government and seeks to accomplish the common good.[2] In this method, powerful interest groups not only influence public policy, but write it themselves for lawmakers and decision-makers to consider, vote on, and then implement. This method, as Lowi describes, became prominent in the United States as our government and country became increasingly more powerful. Now, to manage that power and deliver expectations to the people, the government relies on countless interest groups to inform them on issues and even draft legislation for their consideration.
The public policy I am exploring is the foreign policy towards China. Interest group liberalism runs the gambit on Chinese foreign policy through economics, defense, trade, climate change, intellectual property, human rights, and so forth. This is the second assumption from Lowi, which he claims, “organized interests emerge in every sector of our lives and adequately represent most of those sectors.”[3] Interest groups that focus on trade, for example, companies that want to establish factories in China for its cheap labor, may organize and lobby key policymakers that would remove tariffs and sanctions so that they can more easily open factories in China.
 On the opposite side of the coin, human rights interest groups that want to see China penalized for their oppression of Hong Kong, Tibet, and the Uighurs may advocate for sanctions and increased tariffs as a form of punishment. One example of interest groups influencing China domestically and internationally was the clean energy groups that pushed towards wind energy. Interest groups in the United States, European Union, and China itself were able to push China to reduce carbon emissions and adopt more wind energy infrastructure.[4]
Lowi’s assumptions on interest group liberalism can define my Christian calling of focusing on foreign policy towards China. In the third assumption, Lowi states that “the role of government is one of ensuring access to the most effectively organized, and of ratifying the agreements and adjustments worked out amongst competing leaders.”[5] On policy towards China, there will have to be some compromise and some consensus. The business interest groups cannot get everything they want if the climate change interest groups and human-rights interest groups are actively lobbying the government as well. It is the role of the government to consume and digest information from interest groups to establish a policy that is beneficial to everyone, particularly Americans. As it is written in Isaiah, “Guard my common good: Do what’s right and do it in the right way, For salvation is just around the corner, my setting-things-right is about to go into action.’[6]
[1] Theodore J. Lowi, “The New Public Philosophy,” at The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States(New York: W.W. Norton, 1979), pp. 45-52.
[2] Lowi, “The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States”.
[3] Lowi, “The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States”.
[4] Xingchi Shen and Shoujun Lyu, “Wind Power Development, Government REGULATION Structure, and Vested Interest Groups: Analysis Based on Panel Data of Province of China,” Energy Policy (Elsevier, January 22, 2019), last modified January 22, 2019, accessed September 27, 2021,
[5] Lowi, “The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States”.
[6] Isaiah 56: 1.

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