I enjoyed reading this chapter and the relationship between cause and effect between the two variables; one of the most common errors in interpreting correlations is assuming that a correlation necessarily implies a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables (Gravetter, 2021). This concept reminds me of philosophy and the fallacy of “If a is equal to b and b is equal to c, then a is equal to c.” Our textbook provides an example of a study showing a relationship between high school grades and family income. This result does not mean that having a higher family income causes students to get better grades. To establish a cause-and-effect relationship, it is necessary to conduct a true experiment in which one variable is manipulated by a researcher and other variables are rigorously controlled (Gravetter, 2021).
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